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AP Euro Chapter 25 Study Aid

AP Euro Chapter 25 Study Aid - Chapter 25 Nationalism...

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Chapter 25: Nationalism Napoleon III and France Nationalism : o Generally liberal, idealistic, democratic, or radical o Can also be conservative, fascist, or communist Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III)- Universal Male Suffrage granted him 3x the votes of the other 4 candidates combined in the election of December 1848 o Supported by the great name of his uncle (Napoleon) o Fear of Socialism prompted Middle and Property-Owning classes to elect a strong leader for security o Circulated his “positive program ” for France in pamphlets Ideals & Beliefs: Gov. should represent the people and help them economically o Needed a Strong Authoritarian National Leader Politicians and Parliament represented only special interest groups (MC) A strong leader could serve all the peoples’ interests o National Unity and Social Progress Duty of State & Leader = provide jobs and stimulate the economy Coup d’etat o 1851- Conservative National Assembly failed to change the constitution to allow Napoleon to run for a second 4 year term. o Dec. 2, 1851- Louis Napoleon dismisses the Assembly illegally o Restored Universal Male Suffrage Napoleon III’s Second Empire- Greatest Success = Economy in the 1850s o Gov. encouraged new Investment Banks and Railroad Construction o Gov. used a Public Works Program of improving the urban environment of Paris to stimulate economic expansion Napoleon III gained Working Class support o Provided Working Class Benefits Universal Male Suffrage Regulated pawnshops, supported credit unions, & provided better housing 1860s- workers granted the right to form unions and strike Political Policies (Successful from 1851-1863) o Political Power = Autocratic Emperor > National Assembly Elected his own ministers and gave freedom of action o Restricted (but did NOT abolish) the Assembly Members elected every 6 yrs. by Universal Male Suffrage o Used Parliamentary Elections to build the base of support
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Gov. spread word that the election of the government’s candidates (not the opposing parties), was the key to roads, tax rebates, and other concerns Political Problems (Occurred in the 1860s) o Nationalistic goals – reorganize Europe on the principle of nationality (failed) o Problems in Italy & the failure of the Franco-Prussian War led to criticism from Catholic and National Supporters Napoleon III always went with the public opinion 1860s, forced to progressively liberalize the empire to satisfy demands of middle-class liberals Gave the Assembly greater power Gave opposition greater freedom (republicans, monarchists, liberals) o 1870- grants France a new constitution Combined parliamentary regime w/ hereditary emperor as chief of state Italian Nation-Building Italian Problems- Constantly divided prior to 1850- described as a “ Geographical Expression” o Middle Ages- divided into competing city-states o 1815- reorganized by the Congress of Vienna Lombardy & Venetia taken by Austria Sardinia & Piedmont controlled by Monarchy Central Italy
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