APUSH Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Britain and its Colonies The...

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Chapter 2: Britain and its Colonies The English Background England possessed institutions different from those of continental nations o King shared power with Parliament ( House of Commons & House of Lords ) o Social classes frequently intermingled Gentlemen, merchants, Yeomen , etc. English Liberties Government allowed a large measure of local initiative o Self-rule was granted in counties & towns Country gentlemen often served as officials w/o pay The middle classes controlled the local gov. The King was subject to certain Parliamentary powers o The Magna Carta of 1215 - granted certain inalienable privileges to the nobles in opposition to the King, and developed the idea that people as a whole had rights that the monarch could not violate Common Law - established to check the power of local nobles o People could be arrested only with a warrant issued by a court, etc. English Enterprise English liberties inspired a sense of personal initiative and enterprise Law of Primogeniture - the firstborn inherits the business and property o So the younger children must make their own way in the world Joint-Stock Companies - entrepreneurial companies in which stockholders shared risks and profits o Ex. The British East India Company , etc. o Often obtained Royal Charters entitling them to monopolies in certain areas o Were the instruments of colonization The economy was bad for the “lower classes” o Population explosion = job shortage o Enclosure Movement displaced many farmers and tenants o Encouraged colonial expansion
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Parliament and the Stuarts King James I o Attempted to promote the Divine Right of Kings o Was a Catholic o Ended Elizabeth’s War with Catholic Spain King Charles I o Disbanded Parliament from 1629-1640 o Supported Archbishop Laud ’s attempt to impose Anglican worship on Presbyterian Scots o Civil War caused due to conflict with the “ Long Parliament Cavaliers VS. Roundheads (Cavaliers lost) o Executed on charges of treason Oliver Cromwell o Ruled as a military dictator Forcibly dissolved Parliament Turned England into a Protectorate o Extended religious toleration to all (excluding Catholics & Anglicans) 1660- English Restoration o Placed Charles II on the throne Ruled jointly with Parliament King James II o Attempted to impose the Divine Right of Kings (again) The Glorious Revolution - The bloodless overthrow of King James II in favor of William of Orange & Mary o Initiated b/c James II was going to have a Catholic successor Bill of Rights of 1689 - The agreement under which William and Mary gave up royal prerogatives of suspending laws, erecting special courts, keeping a standing army, or levying taxes without the consent of Parliament Act of Toleration of 1689 - Granted Religious freedom to all Christians except Catholics Act of Settlement of 1701 - Ensured Protestant succession through Queen Anne Act of Union of 1707 - Merged England and Scotland Settling the Chesapeake
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