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APUSH Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 From Empire to Independence The...

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Chapter 5: From Empire to Independence The Heritage of War Victory in the “ Great War ” (The Seven Years War) brought pride in the British Empire, but also caused maturation of American Nationalism o Americans no longer needed British protection from the French threat o Americans felt a new sense of importance after victory in a major war o Many Americans lost respect for the British soldiers Inept at frontier fighting, cursed freely, and broke Sabbath The brutal and cruel punishments of the British army helped give Americans a separate sense of identity Americans continued to trade with the “enemy” (needed molasses of the French Indies) o Writs of Assistance - general search warrants allowing officers to enter any place during daylight hours to seek evidence of illegal trade Used to try and disrupt illegal American trade with the French o James Otis - an attorney hired by Boston merchants to fight the writs in court Lost the case, but advanced the argument that Parliament was violating their own constitution New burdens were laid on the British government due to the extended Empire & War o How should they protect their new possessions? o How should they deal with the Indians on the land? o How should they pay off all the debt? British Politics Whig - government party established by those who opposed James II in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 o Formed majority of the British government in the 18 th century o Championed individual liberty and parliamentary supremacy over the King o Became complacent (smug/satisfied) Concerned more with the pursuit of personal gain King George III seeked to eliminate the Whig influence on the monarchy o Ousted William Pitt as the prime minister o Established the “ King’s Friends ”- a group of obedient advisers that had power to appoint government offices Only retained power by being a “yesman” to the King Resulted in an extremely unstable government Western Lands Royal Proclamation of 1763 - an order from the King to disallow expansion beyond an imaginary line along the Appalachians o Established new colonies of Quebec and East & West Florida
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o Designed to minimize conflict with the Natives o Extremely ineffective due to lack of enforcement Grenville and the Stamp Act Grenville’s Colonial Policy Ministry of the Treasury - created to deal with problems of British Imperial Finances George Grenville - prime minister and first Lord of the Treasury o Despised by George III , but needed because they agreed on certain policies Cutting gov. expenses, reducing national debt, generating more revenue o Took for granted the need for Redcoats to defend the American frontier Wanted to keep a large army to avoid rapid demobilization (which would cause many influential officers to be retired) o Believed that Americans should have greater tax burdens Ordered colonial officials to tighten enforcement on illegal trade, and ordered the navy to patrol the coast for smugglers
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