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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9: The Early Republic Jeffersonian Simplicity March 4, 1801- Thomas Jefferson becomes the first president inaugurated in DC Jeffersons Inaugural Speech was simple and appealed for unity Jefferson in Office Jeffersons Administration was characterized by Republican Simplicity o Goal = avoid the pomp and circumstance of Federalist administrations (since they alluded to monarchies) Jefferson placed policy-making positions to men of his own party o He was the first president to pursue the role of party leader (Republicans) o Secretary of State= James Madison & Secretary of the Treasury= Albert Gallatin o Federalists were chosen for positions of Attorney General , Secretary of War , and Postmaster General (to cultivate Federalists) 1802- Congress repeals the Judiciary Act of 1801 o Restored the Supreme Court to 6 justices, and set up 6 Circuit Courts Marbury Vs. Madison Marbury Vs. Madison (1803)- A supreme court case involving Federalist William Marbury , who was a midnight judge appointed by Adams . Because his letter of appointment was undelivered by the time Adams left office, Jefferson ordered Madison to withhold it, causing Marbury to sue for a court order o Resulted in the Supreme Court assuming the right to Judicial Review Marbury did not win his case because the Court denied itself jurisdiction o The first case in which the Supreme Court declared a federal law unconstitutional Chief Justice John Marshall declared that Section 13 of the Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 (which gave the court jurisdiction in mandamus proceedings) was unconstitutional Allowed for the court to assume the right for Judicial Review (the ability to decide whether acts of Congress were constitutional) Domestic Reforms Jeffersons first term = success in domestic and foreign affairs o Jefferson accepted the existence of Hamiltons National Bank o Reduced the Federal Debt Cut back military expenses (minimized the standing army & navy) Increased revenue from tariffs (shipping increased during the European War) and sale of western land Against Hamiltons idea of unifying the nation through debt o Repealed the Whiskey Tax o Outlawed Foreign Slave Trade on Jan 1, 1808 Illegal trade continued for years The Barbary Pirates Issues with Foreign Relations in Africa o Rulers of Morocco , Algiers , Tunis , and Tripoli on the Barbary Coast of North Africa practiced piracy and extortion US gov. forced to yield money since they were no longer under the protection of the British o 1801- Pasha of Tripoli heightened tribute demands and declared war on the US Ended in 1805 because Lieutenant Stephen Decatur entered the Tripoli harbor and set fire to the captured frigate Philadelphia Pasha ended up accepting $60,000 ransom (instead of $300,000) The Louisiana Purchase Louisiana Purchase of 1803- the buying of the Louisiana Territory from France o More than doubled the territory of the US...
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This note was uploaded on 12/28/2010 for the course HIST 343 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '09 term at Ill. Chicago.
- Spring '09
- AP US History