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APUSH Chapter 12

APUSH Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 The Dynamics of Growth...

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Chapter 12: The Dynamics of Growth Antebellum Era - the time period before the Civil War (Age of Jackson) Agriculture and the National Economy Industrialization brought an expansive commercial and urban outlook that supplanted (eradicated and superceded) Agrarian Philosophy The South gained enormous success out of cotton Cotton The Industrial Revolution and the spread of textile mills created a rapidly growing market for Cotton Cotton Gin - a device invented by Eli Whitney that separated cotton fibers from seeds o Caused a tremendous boom in Cotton production and export Greatly augmented slavery since slaves were needed to plant and harvest large amounts of cotton from the fields Cotton had long been planted, but was not popular because of the work needed to separate the fibers from the seeds o Made cotton a vital element in the national economy The south supplied the textile mills of the north with cotton The north provided finished products to the south Farming the West A steady western migration of planters and their slaves occurred o By 1860 over half the nation’s population resided west of the Appalachians o Land Law of 1820 - passed after the Panic of 1819 and greatly reduced the price of Federal Land o Proliferation of State Banks made it possible to buy land on credit o Preemption Act of 1830 - a bill that allowed “squatters” to stake claims ahead of land surveys and purchase 160 acres at a minimum price of $1.25 per acre o Graduation Act of 1854 - a bill that reduced the price of unsold lands in stages until they were sold at 12.5 cents per acre after 30 years Technological innovations made it easier to settle new lands o Jethro Wood ’s Iron Plow , John Deere ’s Steel Plow , and John Oliver ’s Chilled-Iron and Steel Plow made it easier for farmers to till the soil o 1840- Mechanical Seeders replaced the process of sowing seeds by hand o Cyrus McCormick invented a grain reaper to rapidly harvest wheat o Caused a rise in agricultural production, a drop in prices, a rise in income, and an improved standard of living
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Transportation and the National Economy New Roads Transportation improvements helped spur development of a National Market Wilderness Road - a trail blazed by Daniel Boone that eased the route through the Cumberland Gap into Kentucky Travel was generally difficult o Stagecoaches were crammed and slow o There were very few major highways Philadelphia-Lancaster Turnpike - an innovation in 1794 that consisted of a pike at a tollgate that turned to admit traffic o Facilitated a movement for graded and paved roads in the Northeast Water Transportation Flatboats were the main method of water travel in the 1820s 1807- Robert Fulton and Robert R. Livingston commercialized the first successful steamboat, the Clermont o Steamboats revolutionized water transportation Steamboats were much faster than Flatboats Flatboats could only travel downstream while Steamboats could travel both
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APUSH Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 The Dynamics of Growth...

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