AP Bio Prelab 8

AP Bio Prelab 8 - HeterocystesIntroduction Nostoc A kinetes...

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Akinetes Heterocystes Nostoc Introduction The total number of species existing on the planet likely numbers beyond 10 million Kingdom Common Names Cell Type # of Cells Nutrition Archaea Extremophile Halophile Methanogen Thermophile Acodophile Prokaryotic Unicellular Heterotrophic Autotrophic (Photoautotrophs Chemoautotrophs) Bacteria Bacteria (Eubacteria) Blue-green Algae (Cyanobacteria Prokaryotic Unicellular Colonial Heterotrophic Autotrophic Protista Protozoa Algae Eukaryotic Unicellular Colonial Multi-cellular Heterotrophic Autotrophic Mixotrophic Plantae Plants Eukaryotic Multi-cellular Autotrophic -Photosynthetic Fungi Fungus Mold Mushroom Yeast Eukaryotic Multi-cellular Heterotrophic Animalia Animals Eukaryotic Multi-cellular Heterotrophic Part I: Prokaryotes Prokaryotes - cells that lack complex-membrane bound organelles Split into the Domains of Bacteria and Archaea Bacteria can be Heterotrophic (derive energy from organic molecules made by living organisms) or Autotrophic (derive energy from photosynthesis/oxidation of inorganic molecules
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Generally unicellular and may form chain-like or clustered groupings of cells (colonies ) Binary Fission - the process of asexual reproduction in prokaryotes that causes cells to pinch into two without the complex movement of chromosomes seen in mitosis Conjugation - genetic recombination in which a circular piece of DNA, called a plasmid, is transferred to a second bacterium through an F pilus (specialized cytoplasmic bridge) Bacteria Cell Walls are generally made of Peptidoglycan Bacteria possess three basic cell shapes Helical - Spirilla and Spirochetes (always singular) Spherical - Coccus (may form chains or clusters) Rod- Bacillus (may form chains or clusters) Colonies - loose arrangements of cells that function as independent units Each cell in a colony can function on its own, unlike those in multi-cellular organisms Part I Procedure: 1) Search online for pictures of Oscillatoria and Nostoc , and attach them to the notebook 2) Make sketches of bacteria showing each of the main cell shapes from the demonstration slide 3) Obtain a prepared slide of cyanobacteria and make a sketch of its appearance 4) Obtain a prepared slide of Oscillatoria and make a sketch of its appearance a. Take special note of the long chains of cells called Trichomes b. Oscillatoria are named because their movements oscillate through the water 5) Obtain a prepared slide of E. Coli and make a sketch of its appearance a. Describe its shape as either bacillus , coccus , or spiral b. Describe the arrangement as either chains (Strepto -), clusters (Staphylo -) or single cells 6) Prepare a slide of preserved Nostoc a. Nostocs (witches’ butter) form large colonies containing two types of cells i. Heterocysts - the larger cells that conduct Nitrogen Fixation ii. Vegetative Cells - the smaller cells
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Proteobacteria
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This note was uploaded on 12/28/2010 for the course BIO 103 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Ill. Chicago.

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AP Bio Prelab 8 - HeterocystesIntroduction Nostoc A kinetes...

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