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PSYCH STUDY GUIDE CH 12 1. What is Erikson’s view of the central task of middle childhood? Children develop a sense of their own competence through the achievement of culturally defined learning goals. Industry vs inferiority. 2. List and define each of the Big Five personality traits Extraversion: active assertive, enthusiastic, outgoing. Agreeableness: affectionate, forgiving, generous, reliable. Conscientiousness: efficient, organized, prudent, reliable. Neuroticism: anxious, self pitying, tense, touchy, unstable. Openness/intellect: artistic, curious, imaginative, insightful, original. 3. Explain how the three components of Bandura’s reciprocal determinism interact and generate your own example to test your understanding. Reciprocal determinism: Bandura’s model in which personal, behavioral, and environmental factors interact to influence personality development. Each of 3 components influences, and is influenced by the other 2. I.E.: emotional reaction to failure of bike not going up hill lead to him making decision to take training wheels off, talk to dad, go up hill. 4. What are the major features of the psychological self? Personality traits and self efficacy: individuals belief in her capacity to cause an intended event to occur or to perform a task. 5. Explain Bandura’s concept of self efficacy and give an example different from the one in the book. Bandura proposed that peer models are a primary source of self efficacy beliefs. Child has to believe he can do the same as his peers, thus social comparisons play an integral role for children to gain insight into their own self efficacy. Child must perceive the similarity to herself In order to be influenced.self efficacy for rowing was surmounted when I succeeded in making the team. STUDY GUIDE CH 10 1. What is the impact of exercise on bone development? Exercise increases the absorption of calcium into the bones. It also makes bones stronger. 2. How do androgen levels change and what effect does this have? Androgen secretion increases which effects puberty. Increase in muscle mass and play a role in bone growth, and prepare the cells of the sex glands to secrete hormones that initiate puberty. 3. How does the textbook recommend adults facilitate development of fundamental movement skills in middle childhood? Which sports are ideal for 6-7-year-olds and why? Textbook recommends that children engage in sports. Ideal sports for 6-7 year olds are soccer and swimming. 4. Describe gender differences in motor coordination and strength . Males achieve much greater strength and stamina than females. 5. Briefly describe each of the four goals of optimal development : Increasing self management of body and brain: which includes learning how to get the proper balance of nutrition, sleep and exercise, how to avoid serious illness and accidents, and the impact of actively developing brain systems on attention and learning in school. mastering culturally appropriate cognitive skills: which include new forms of thinking, memory
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This note was uploaded on 12/28/2010 for the course PSYCH 355 taught by Professor Manis during the Fall '10 term at USC.

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