PSYCH STUDY GUIDE CH 12
1. What is Erikson’s view of the central task of middle childhood?
Children develop a
sense of their own competence through the achievement of culturally defined learning
goals. Industry vs inferiority.
2. List and define each of the Big Five personality traits
assertive, enthusiastic, outgoing. Agreeableness: affectionate, forgiving, generous,
reliable. Conscientiousness: efficient, organized, prudent, reliable. Neuroticism: anxious,
self pitying, tense, touchy, unstable. Openness/intellect: artistic, curious, imaginative,
3. Explain how the three components of Bandura’s reciprocal determinism interact
and generate your own example to test your understanding.
Bandura’s model in which personal, behavioral, and environmental factors interact to
influence personality development. Each of 3 components influences, and is influenced
by the other 2. I.E.: emotional reaction to failure of bike not going up hill lead to him
making decision to take training wheels off, talk to dad, go up hill.
4. What are the major features of the psychological self?
Personality traits and self
efficacy: individuals belief in her capacity to cause an intended event to occur or to
perform a task.
5. Explain Bandura’s concept of self efficacy and give an example different from the
one in the book.
Bandura proposed that peer models are a primary source of self efficacy
beliefs. Child has to believe he can do the same as his peers, thus social comparisons play
an integral role for children to gain insight into their own self efficacy.
perceive the similarity to herself In order to be influenced.self efficacy for rowing was
surmounted when I succeeded in making the team.
STUDY GUIDE CH 10
1. What is the impact of exercise on bone development?
Exercise increases the
absorption of calcium into the bones. It also makes bones stronger.
2. How do androgen levels change and what effect does this have?
secretion increases which effects puberty. Increase in muscle mass and play a role in
bone growth, and prepare the cells of the sex glands to secrete hormones that initiate
3. How does the textbook recommend adults facilitate development of fundamental
movement skills in middle childhood?
Which sports are ideal for 6-7-year-olds and
why? Textbook recommends that children engage in sports. Ideal sports for 6-7 year olds
are soccer and swimming.
4. Describe gender differences in motor coordination and strength
. Males achieve
much greater strength and stamina than females.
5. Briefly describe each of the four goals of optimal development :
management of body and brain:
which includes learning how to get the proper balance of
nutrition, sleep and exercise, how to avoid serious illness and accidents, and the impact of
actively developing brain systems on attention and learning in school.
culturally appropriate cognitive skills:
which include new forms of thinking, memory