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Lect2 Class&Prokaryotes - Classification of...

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Classification of Microorganisms 1
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All species inventory Goal: in the 25 years to identify all livings estimated at 10-100 million now defunct All living organisms Are or are made up of cells Have plasma membrane Use ATP for energy Store genetic information as DNA Have ribosomes 2
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Taxonomy Organisms are divided into taxa Show degrees of similarity Taxonomy The science of classifying organisms Provides universal names for organisms Provides a reference for identifying organisms Systematics or phylogeny: The study of the evolutionary history of organisms Assumption that similarity 3
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Taxonomy Original classification Aristotle: animals and plants Carolus Linnaeus: used Latin Animalia/Plantae With electron microscope changed radically Prokaryotes were established Robert Whittaker: 5 kingdom system Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Monera 4
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Taxonomic Hierarchy Figure 10.5 5 General Specific
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Taxonomic Hierarchy Figure 10.5 6 General Specific
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Taxonomic Hierachy Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species K ing P hillip C ame O ver F rom G eneva, S witzerland 7 Related Species Genus Related Genera Family Related Families Orders Related Orders Phylum Related Phyla Kingdom
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Three Domains Proposed by Carl Woese in 1978 Due to discovery of three cell types Linked to differences in ribosomes 70S prokaryotes; 80S Eukaryotes Comparing nucleotide ribosomal sequences 8
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Sequence similarities in Classification DNA base composition Guanine + cytosine moles% (GC) DNA fingerprinting rRNA sequencing Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Increase amount of DNA 9 ATGCGTGGCCTACCC TACGCACCGGATGGG 10/15 GCs = 67%
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Nucleic Acid Hybridization Figure 10.15 10
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The Three-Domain System Figure 10.1 11
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Table 10.2 12
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Endosymbiotic Theory Figures 10.2, 10.3 13
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Species Definition Eukaryotic species: A group of closely related organisms that breed among themselves Prokaryotic species: A population of cells with similar characteristics Viral species: Population of viruses with similar characteristics that occupies a particular ecological niche 14
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Prokaryotic Domains 15 Archaea Bacteria Membrane lipids Branched chains; ether linkage Straight chains; ester linkage Transfer RNA molecules Missing portion Like eukaryotes Sensitivity to antibiotics No Yes First Amino acid Methionine Formyl-Methionine
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