Lect4 Enzymes&Metabolism

Lect4 Enzymes&Metabolism - Chemical Principles:...

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Chemical Principles: Water and Carbon
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BONDS IONIC : between two ions not as strong comes apart easily, e.g. soluble in water COVALENT : shared  electrons very strong most common in biological matter can be POLAR or NON POLAR HYDROGEN : weak  ionic interactions Weak Involve a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom Uneven distribution of electrons within molecule
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Polar vs. Nonpolar Bonds Polar charged  surface electrons are shared unevenly Prefer other polar molecules Soluble in water, which is also polar Nonpolar — no residual  (left over) charge electrons are shared evenly Prefer other nonpolar molecules Soluble in oils
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Properties of water molecule The water molecule is a polar  molecule Allows formation of hydrogen  bonds Contributes to the various properties water exhibits
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Versatile solvent Polar water molecules interact with: ionic  compounds other polar  molecules (like proteins) + + + + Cl - Na + + + + + Na + Cl Dissolving agent = Solvent Agent being dissolved = Solute δ + δ
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Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Substances A hydrophilic substance Has an affinity for water A hydrophobic substance Does not have an affinity for water
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Most common atoms in biological molecules H O N C Hydrogen (valence = 1) Oxygen (valence = 2) Nitrogen (valence = 3) Carbon (valence = 4)
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Chemical Principles: Biological molecules
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Macromolecules Large  molecules composed of smaller molecules Most macromolecules are polymers A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks called monomers monomers polymers
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Types of macromolecules Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic acids
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Synthesis of Polymers Formation of larger molecules by
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This note was uploaded on 12/29/2010 for the course BIOL 210 taught by Professor Gutiérrez during the Spring '10 term at Coastline Community College.

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Lect4 Enzymes&Metabolism - Chemical Principles:...

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