Lect5 Metabolism&MicrobialGrowth

Lect5 Metabolism&MicrobialGrowth - Microbial Metabolism...

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Microbial Metabolism
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How is energy generated? How do we build the molecules of life?
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Chapter 5 – Microbial Metabolism Principles of metabolism Reaction coupling Enzymes Redox reactions ATP synthesis Carbohydrate Catabolism Cellular respiration Anaerobic respiration Fermentation Catabolism of non-glucose compounds Photosynthesis Nutritional patterns Anabolism
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Chemical reactions in living things Metabolism Anabolism Catabolism + Release energy = Exergonic Absorb energy = Endergonic Making/breaking bonds = chemical reactions
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Figure 5.1 Cellular Metabolism
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Energy molecule in the cell Recall: ATP ( adenosine triphosphate ) ATP contains high-energy phosphate bonds
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Figure 5.1 Cellular Metabolism
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Exergonic and Endergonic reactions are COUPLED Exergonic reactions Endergonic reactions
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Enzymes
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Enzymes – biological catalysts Catalysts = substance that speeds up a chemical reaction (reaction has to happen!) Enzymes neither consumed nor permanently changed during a reaction Enzymes lower the activation energy of the reaction Without enzymes reactions would still occur but rate would be very slow
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Enzyme specificity Induced-fit model
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Enzymes don’t always work alone… Cofactor – non-protein component Coenzyme – organic cofactors One coenzyme may assist many different enzymes Most coenzymes synthesized from vitamins
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The process of enzyme action
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PATHWAY 1 Initial reactant Intermediates Final products enzyme 1 enzyme 2 enzyme 3 enzyme 4 PATHWAY 2 enzyme 5 enzyme 6 A B D E F C G Metabolic Pathway – a series of chemical reactions If one metabolic step is blocked → all products “downstream” of the blockage will be affected Specific enzymes facilitate each step
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Controlling enzymatic activity
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Enzyme activity can be inhibited by Denaturation Environmental factors Inhibitors Competitive Non-competitive Feedback
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Protein denaturation
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Factors that influence enzyme activity Enzymes active in narrow range Temperature, pH, salt concentration Optimum Temperature Optimum pH
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How are enzymes different in Archaea?
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Inhibitors Competitive inhibition Binds active site Always reversible with enough substrate Ex. sulfa antibiotics inhibit enzyme activity in the folic acid synthesis pathway Non-competitive ( allosteric ) inhibition Binds outside of active site May be reversible or irreversible Ex. mercurochrome (antimicrobial containing mercury)
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Figure 5.10 Competitive Inhibition
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Non-competitive (allosteric) Inhibition
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Oxidation-Reduction reactions
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Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions Oxidation (usually) produces ENERGY . Oxidation reactions are
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This note was uploaded on 12/29/2010 for the course BIOL 210 taught by Professor Gutiérrez during the Spring '10 term at Coastline Community College.

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Lect5 Metabolism&MicrobialGrowth - Microbial Metabolism...

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