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Lect7 Microbial Genetics - Chapter 8 Microbial Genetics...

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1 Chapter 8 – Microbial Genetics Part I: How does it work? A. The flow of genetic information B. DNA/RNA, genome structure C. Replication, transcription and translation D. Gene function and regulation Part II: What happens when it goes wrong? A. Mutations of genes B. Gene transfer
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2 Chapter 8 – Microbial Genetics Part I: How does it work? A. The flow of genetic information B. DNA/RNA, genome structure C. Replication, transcription and translation D. Gene function and regulation Part II: What happens when it goes wrong? A. Mutations of genes B. Gene transfer
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3 Part I: How does it work?
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4 Central Dogma of Biology – The flow of genetic information in biology και να θεραπεύω τους πάσχοντες κατά τη δύναμή μου και κατά την κρίση μου χωρίς ποτέ, εκουσίως, να τους … Kai na therapeuo tous pasxontes kata te dyname… I will prescribe treatment to the best of my ability…
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5 Genome – complete set of genetic information in a cell Gene – sequence of DNA that codes for a gene product, usually a protein Replication – duplicates DNA prior to cell division Transcription – copies information in DNA into RNA Translation – interprets information carried by RNA to synthesize encoded protein Expression – process transmitting information from DNA to protein thru transcription and translation DNA molecule
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6 Chapter 8 – Microbial Genetics Part I: How does it work? A. The flow of genetic information B. DNA/RNA, genome structure C. Replication, transcription and translation D. Gene function and regulation Part II: What happens when it goes wrong? A. Mutations of genes B. Gene transfer
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7 Recall: Nucleotides – base + phosphate + sugar
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8 Figure 7.1 The Structure of Nucleic Acids
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9 DNA – D eoxyribo N ucleic A cid Covalent bond between 5’PO 4 and 3’OH → forms a sugar-phosphate backbone DNA forms a double helix Have directionality: defined from phosphate to hydroxyl DNA strands are: Anti-parallel - strands run in opposite directions Complementary - strands contain complementary bases which can base pair Base-pairing – DNA bases form weak hydrogen bonds with each other → C-G and A-T
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10 Nucleotide Bases DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine RNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil O O
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11 DNA vs. RNA DNA Deoxyribonucleotides Thymine (T) Always a double helix (double-stranded) DNA – the genetic material of a cell RNA Ribonucleotides Uracil (U) Single-stranded! Folds into many shapes mRNA – messenger RNA: transcribed from genes and translated into protein tRNA – transfer RNA: role in protein synthesis rRNA – ribosomal RNA: an integral part of the ribosome
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12 Prokaryotic Chromosomal Packaging
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13 Eukaryotic Chromosomal Packaging
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14 Genome Characteristics Prokarya Eukarya # of Chromosomes One Multiple Shape of genome?
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