Lect10 Vaccines&Immune Disorders

Lect10 Vaccines&Immune Disorders - Lecture 10...

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Lecture 10 – Vaccines Vaccines Innactivated Attenuated Toxoid New developments Side effects
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Active vs. Passive Immunity Active Immunity – immune response upon antigen exposure Passive Immunity – transfer of antibodies from another source Antitoxin – antibodies that protect against toxin Antiserum – serum containing protective antibodies
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Summary Adaptive immunity occurs after exposure Highly specific response Mediated by lymphocytes (B and T cells) All lymphocytes derive from stem cells in bone marrow
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Immunization reduces disease incidence
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Vaccines and Immunization Procedures Vaccine – preparation of disease-containing agent or its products to induce active immunity Vaccines protect individuals, stop spread in population Herd immunity Dramatic decrease in childhood disease Failure to vaccinate children → reappearance of disease Effective vaccines should be safe, few side effects, lasting protection
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Attenuated (Live) Vaccines Weakened/ avirulent form of disease-causing microorganism Genetic manipulation to produce mutant pathogens with reduced virulence Replicates in recipient → mild/ undetectable infection Advantages Stimulate cell-mediated immunity – T H 1 and T C cells → good for controlling infection Potential to spread immunity → herd immunity 1 dose → long-term protection Disadvantages Potential to cause disease Cannot be administered to pregnant women, immunocompromised Usually require refrigeration Occasionally mutate → cause disease
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