Lect12 CardioRespiratoryDiseases

Lect12 CardioRespiratoryDiseases - Lecture 12 - Microbial...

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Lecture 12 - Microbial Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Diseases Structures of the cardiovascular system Septicemia
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Microbial Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Diseases Bacterial diseases Septicemia, bacteremia, toxemia Endocarditis Gas gangrene Brucellosis Tularemia Plague Lyme disease Viral diseases Infectious mononucleosis Cytomegalovirus Yellow fever Dengue fever African viral hemorrhagic fever Protozoan and helminthic diseases Malaria Toxoplasmosis Chagas’ disease Schistosomiasis
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The Blood and Lymphatic System
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Bacterial infections of the cardiovascular system
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Septicemia Symptoms Violent shaking chills and fever Anxiety and rapid breathing; shock Causative agent – Gram(-) most likely to cause fatal septicemias Escherichia coli , Pseudomona aeruginosa , Bacteroides sp., Neisseria meningitidis , Salmonella Some Gram(+) Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus pyogenes (STSS) Often opportunistic, nosocomial Pathogenesis Most common in immunocompromised
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Lymphangitis and Bacteremia
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Potential effects of endotoxin Bacteria escape localized infection → move into bloodstream Endotoxin activates macrophages (phagocytes) → release cytokines – Fever; capillary leakage – Hypotension, vital organs no longer supplied with adequate amount of blood Activation of blood clotting factors
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Septicemia Epidemiology Mainly nosocomial disease – patients with impaired host defenses Patients with cancer, diabetes, organ transplants are vulnerable Medical procedures may introduce bacteria into blood Mortality up to 50% – Gram(-) or STSS Prevention and treatment Prompt treatment of localized infection Early antimicrobial medication to treat causative organism Measures to correct shock and poor oxygenation LPS antitoxin and TNF antitoxin have some benefit
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Ch 22 Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System Structures Normal microbiota Upper respiratory system infections Bacterial upper respiratory system infections Viral upper respiratory system infections Lower respiratory system infections – Bacterial lower respiratory system infections – Viral lower respiratory system infections – Fungal lung infections
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Microbial Diseases of the Respiratory System Bacterial Diseases (upper) – Streptococcal respiratory diseases – Diphtheria – Sinusitis and otitis media Viral Diseases (upper) – Common cold Bacterial Diseases (lower) Bacterial pneumonias Pneumococcal
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Lect12 CardioRespiratoryDiseases - Lecture 12 - Microbial...

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