Lect15 Finale - Course Overview 1 The Domains of Life...

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Course Overview 1
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The Domains of Life Eukarya Eukaryotes – “true nucleus” Helminths, algae, fungi and protozoa Single-celled or multicellular Some may have cell walls Membrane-bound nucleus and organelles Bacteria Prokaryotes – “pre-nucleus” No membrane-bound nucleus or organelles DNA stored in region – nucleoid Cells may be surrounded by cell wall Archaea Prokaryotes – “pre-nucleus” No membrane-bound nucleus or organelles DNA stored in region - nucleoid
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Prokaryotes Bacteria Single-celled Specific shapes – rod-shaped, spherical, spiral Most have rigid cell walls made of peptidoglycan Multiply by binary fission Many can move using appendages extending from cell - flagella Archaea Same size, shape and appearance as bacteria May have cell walls – but not peptidoglycan Ability to grow in extreme environments Methanogens Extreme halophiles Extreme thermophiles Bacteriology
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Eukaryotic Microorganisms Algae Single-celled or multicellular All contain chlorophyll – can use light as a source of energy Rigid cell walls made of cellulose May use flagella for movement – different from prokaryotic flagella Protozoa Single-celled Most groups are motile – may have flagella or cilia No cell wall Fungi Single-celled or multicellular Gain energy from organic materials Rigid cell wall made of chitin Parasitic Worms Multicellular Derive nutrients from host organism → cause disease in humans No cell wall
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Viruses and Prions Viruses – nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) surrounded by protective protein coat Reproduce by multiplying inside host cells All forms of life may be infected by viruses Viruses usually kill infected cells but some may exist harmoniously with host Prions – protein only Misfolded protein causes other proteins to misfold Causes “Mad Cow Disease” and human Creutzfeld Jacob Disease (CJD) Non-living infectious agents
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1918-1919 more Americans killed by influenza than WWI, WWII, Korean War and Vietnam War combined! Can we overcome?
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Lect15 Finale - Course Overview 1 The Domains of Life...

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