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Impacts_on_Environment_and_Human_Health

Impacts_on_Environment_and_Human_Health - The risk of...

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The risk of hazardous chemicals
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High risk – smoking or drinking while driving intoxicated Low risk – infrequent events that may have a large consequence, such as an earthquake on the east coast of U.S. Very low risk – events that have never occurred in recorded history Mixed risk – outcomes that increase in frequency against a background of occurrences
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Risk analysis is divided into risk assessment and risk management Assessment is an objective estimation of risk using the identification of hazards, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization Management is the process of determining what to do about the risk including identification and use of mitigating measures
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Market-based – relies on market forces (typically responses from industry) Hierarchical method – relies on explicit controls from top-down management (typically lawmakers response) Sectarian method – relies on emotions (typically citizens response) Rational method – relies on logic and facts (typically researchers response)
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Acute health effects are characterized by sudden and severe exposure and rapid absorption of a substance (often reversible) Chronic health effects are prolonged or repeated exposures over long period of time with symptoms that may not be immediately apparent (often irreversible)
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Dose response relationships describe the change on an organism or a population caused by different levels of exposure to a substance A dose-response curve is a graph that relates the amount of drug or toxin given compared with the response
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Threshold Dose – the point on the graph where the response is first observed LD
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