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Air_Pollution - Air Pollution Primary Pollutants Primary...

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Air Pollution
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Primary Pollutants Primary Pollutants – emitted directly into the air from natural sources such as volcanoes, mobile sources (cars), or stationary sources such as industrial smokestacks Primary pollutants include: Particulate matter (PM 10 ) Nitric oxide (NO), Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and Carbon monoxide (CO)
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Secondary Pollutants Secondary Pollutants – result from reaction of primary pollutants in the atmosphere to create a new pollutant Secondary pollutants include: Sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) Sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) Ozone (O 3 ) Chemicals in photochemical smog PANS and peroxyacyl nitrates
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Major Air Pollutants NITROGEN DIOXIDE (NO 2 ) Forms when fuels are burned at high temps Results from forest fires, volcanoes, lightning, and bacterial action in soil Forms nitric acid (HNO 3 ) in air and contributes to acid deposition and cultural eutrophication Results in lung irritation and damage, suppresses plant growth, and may cause cancer
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Major Air Pollutants OZONE (O 3 ) Major component of photochemical smog Formed by sunlight reacting with NO x and VOC’s Causes lung irritation and damage, bronchial constriction, coughing, wheezing, and eye irritation Damages plants, rubber, and plastics
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Major Air Pollutants SULFUR DIOXIDE (SO 2 ) Produced by burning high sulfur oil or coal, smelting metals, and paper manufacturing Combines with water vapor to produce acid precipitation, which reduces plant productivity Causes breathing difficulties Significant decreases in the U.S. reflect the success of the Acid Rain Program and the Clean Air Act
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Major Air Pollutants SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER (PM 10 ) Particles with diameter 1/7 the width of a human hair or less (<10 µ m) Includes smoke, dust, diesel soot, lead, asbestos Cause lung irritation and damage and many are mutagens, teratogens, and carcinogens Reduction of PM 10 ’s would produce health benefits 10 times greater than similar reductions in other pollutants
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Major Air Pollutants VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC’s) Organic compounds that have a high vapor pressure (over 600 compounds identified) Examples include toluene, xylene, formaldehyde, benzene, and acetone Many are found in paints, aerosol sprays, dry- cleaning fluids, and industrial solvents Cause respiratory irritation and damage, and most are cancerous & cause liver, kidney, and nervous system damage Concentration of VOC’s may be 1000 times greater indoors than outdoors!!
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