Air_Pollution

Air_Pollution - Air Pollution Primary Pollutants •...

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Unformatted text preview: Air Pollution Primary Pollutants • Primary Pollutants – emitted directly into the air from natural sources such as volcanoes, mobile sources (cars), or stationary sources such as industrial smokestacks • Primary pollutants include: – Particulate matter (PM 10 ) – Nitric oxide (NO), Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) – Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) – Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and Carbon monoxide (CO) Secondary Pollutants • Secondary Pollutants – result from reaction of primary pollutants in the atmosphere to create a new pollutant • Secondary pollutants include: – Sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) – Sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) – Ozone (O 3 ) – Chemicals in photochemical smog • PANS and peroxyacyl nitrates Major Air Pollutants • NITROGEN DIOXIDE (NO 2 ) – Forms when fuels are burned at high temps – Results from forest fires, volcanoes, lightning, and bacterial action in soil – Forms nitric acid (HNO 3 ) in air and contributes to acid deposition and cultural eutrophication – Results in lung irritation and damage, suppresses plant growth, and may cause cancer Major Air Pollutants • OZONE (O 3 ) – Major component of photochemical smog – Formed by sunlight reacting with NO x and VOC’s – Causes lung irritation and damage, bronchial constriction, coughing, wheezing, and eye irritation – Damages plants, rubber, and plastics Major Air Pollutants • SULFUR DIOXIDE (SO 2 ) – Produced by burning high sulfur oil or coal, smelting metals, and paper manufacturing – Combines with water vapor to produce acid precipitation, which reduces plant productivity – Causes breathing difficulties – Significant decreases in the U.S. reflect the success of the Acid Rain Program and the Clean Air Act Major Air Pollutants • SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER (PM 10 ) – Particles with diameter 1/7 the width of a human hair or less (<10 µ m) – Includes smoke, dust, diesel soot, lead, asbestos – Cause lung irritation and damage and many are mutagens, teratogens, and carcinogens – Reduction of PM 10 ’s would produce health benefits 10 times greater than similar reductions in other pollutants Major Air Pollutants • VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC’s) – Organic compounds that have a high vapor pressure (over 600 compounds identified) – Examples include toluene, xylene, formaldehyde, benzene, and acetone – Many are found in paints, aerosol sprays, dry- cleaning fluids, and industrial solvents – Cause respiratory irritation and damage, and most are cancerous & cause liver, kidney, and...
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This note was uploaded on 12/29/2010 for the course ENGR 514 taught by Professor Snitter during the Fall '10 term at Oregon Tech.

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Air_Pollution - Air Pollution Primary Pollutants •...

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