Energy_Conservation

Energy_Conservation - Energy
Star
  

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Unformatted text preview: Energy
Star
   Joint
program
of
U.S.
EPA
(Environmental
Protection
 Agency)
and
U.S.
Dept.
of
Energy
   Designed
to
protect
the
environment
through
energy‐ efficient
products
and
practices
   In
2005
Energy
Star
programs
saved
the
equivalent
of
 23
million
cars
worth
of
green
house
gas
emissions
and
 $12
billion
in
utility
bills
 CAFE
standards
   Corporate
Average
Fuel
Economy
   Transportation
needs
account
for
2/3
of
petroleum
 consumption
in
US
   Increasing
at
1.8%
a
year
(faster
than
any
other
sector)
   Imports
of
crude
oil
and
other
petroleum
products
 expected
to
increase
66%
by
2020.
   Estimated
55
billion
gallons
of
fuel
saved
by
CAFE
 standards
 CAFE
Standards
   Average
CAFE
standard
for
automobiles
is
27.5
miles
 per
gallon
   Has
not
increased
since
1996
   Achieved
through
better
engine
design,
efficiency,
and
 weight
reduction
   More
improvements
could
be
made
through
   Streamlining,
reduced
tire‐rolling
resistance,
hybrid
 technology,
transmission
improvements,
higher
voltage
 electrical
systems,
performance‐based
tax
credits
 Hybrid
Electrics
   Basic
requirements
of
cars
are
–
300
mile
range,
fuel
 quickly
and
easily,
keep
up
with
other
traffic.
   1
gallon
of
gas
weighs
6

pounds
and
when
burned,
 combines
with
oxygen
to
produce
20
pounds
of
CO2
   Hybrid
vehicles
attempt
to
combine
“clean”
electric
 power
with
the
range
of
gas
powered
cars
 Hybrid
Electrics
   5
important
parts
 1.  Engine
–
smaller
and
more
efficient
than
gas
cars
 2.  Fuel
tank
–
1
gallon
of
gas
stores
energy
equivalent
to
 1000
pounds
of
batteries
 3.  Advanced
electronics
–
allow
electric
motor
to
use
 battery
power
to
accelerate
the
car
and
store
energy
 when
braking
 4.  Generator
–
produce
electrical
power
 5.  Batteries
‐
rechargable
 Hybrid
Electrics
   Series
hybrid
   Gas
used
to
turn
a
generator,
generator
powers
car
   Gas
never
directly
powers
vehicle
   Plug‐in
hybrid
   Car
runs
on
electricity
first
   If
car
runs
out
of
charge,
gas
continues
to
power
car
 Mass
Transit
   Rail,
bus
services,
subways,
airlines,
ferries….
   Most
of
world
uses
mass
transit
over
private
 cars…..except
in
the
US
   3%
of
US
uses
mass
transit
   47%
of
Japanese
use
mass

 
 transit
   Increases
dramatically
as

 
 population
density
increases
 Mass
Transit
   Other
forms
include
   Light
rail
–
trains
that
share
space
with
road
traffic
or
 have
own
right‐of‐way
(the
“L”)
   Person
Rapid
Transit
   Vehicles
that
can
both
be
controlled
by
driver
and
follow
 automated
guideway
   Automated
Highway
Systems
   Sensors
in
roadbed
monitor
and
control
traff ic
f low
to
reduce
 congestion
 Mass
Transit
   Bus
Rapid
Transit
   Bud‐dedicated
right‐of‐ways
   Maglev
   Magnetically
levitated
trains
that
“f loat”
above
rails
to
 reduce
friction
   Tubular
Rail
   Trains
that
do
not
sit
on
tracks
but
rather
travel
through
 distantly
spaced
support
structures.
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/29/2010 for the course ENGR 514 taught by Professor Snitter during the Fall '10 term at Oregon Tech.

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