NutrientCycleReview_Water

NutrientCycleReview_Water - Biogeochemical Cycles Carbon...

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Biogeochemical Cycles
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Carbon Cycle •Photosynthesis captures atmospheric CO 2 and forms glucose •Animals eat plants and change the glucose to other biomolecules •Biomolecules are combusted by animals to form CO 2 or compressed into fossil fuels and then combusted to form CO 2
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Carbon Cycle •Respiration produces CO 2 •CO 2 is captured and dissolved in the ocean - in equilibrium with the carbonate (CO 3 2- ) ion •CO 3 2- is used by microorganisms (shells) - die - compacted into limestone, dolomite, and marble - if part of a subduction zone - will become molten magma and be vented as CO 2 •Microorganisms build biomolecules that - when compressed become peat or coal or oil •Peat, coal, oil burned to form CO 2
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Carbon Cycle
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Nitrogen Cycle •Nitrogen fixation - N 2 converted to NH 3 or NH 4 + by bacteria. •N 2 oxidized by combustion to form NO 2 - which combines with water to form HNO 2 or HNO 3 •Nitrification - NH 4 + oxidized for form NO 2 - which are further oxidized to form NO 3 - •Nitrate ions also formed by lightning oxidation
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Nitrogen Cycle •Nitrates used as nutrients to form proteins and nucleic acids •Plant proteins eaten by animals •Ammonification - Animals metabolize proteins to form NH 3 or die and decompose to form NH 3
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Nitrogen Cycle
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Phosphate Cycle •Phosphorus always in phosphate form (PO 4 3- ) •No gaseous phase •Decaying organic matter puts phosphates in soil - fertilizer, settles (becomes part of sediments) •Animals and plants use phosphates and die
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Phosphate Cycle
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Sulfur Cycle •Sulfur used to construct proteins by living things •Living cells die - sulfur compressed into fossil fuels - burned to produce SO 2 •SO 2 combines with water vapor to form sulfuric and sulfurous acid (H 2 SO 4 and H 2 SO 3 ) which falls as acid deposition and distributes sulfate and sulfite ions •Ions taken up by living things to be used in proteins.
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•Sulfate ions also reduced to sulfide (S 2- ) and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) by microorganisms •Volcanic eruptions release sulfide ions •Sulfide ions form insoluble precipitates with most metal ions and reside in the earth’s crust •Some marine plankton produce dimethyl sulfide
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NutrientCycleReview_Water - Biogeochemical Cycles Carbon...

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