Unit_2_Outline_with_Notes__2_

Unit_2_Outline_with_Notes__2_ - 600 C.E.1450 I. Questions...

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600 C.E.–1450 I. Questions of periodization A. Nature and causes of changes in the world history framework leading up to 600 C.E. – 1450 as a period B. Emergence of new empires and political systems C. Continuities and breaks within the period (e.g., the impact of the Mongols on international contacts and on specific societies) The Islamic world II. The rise and role of Dar al-Islam as a unifying cultural and economic force in Eurasia and Africa A. The Rise 1. Arab Region Before a. Vast, dry area b. Nomadic Bedouin tribes c. Criss-crossed by trade routes d. Mecca 1. Trading crossroads 2. center for Arab tribal religious worship 3. Ka’aba – fallen from heaven and has special powers 4. Mechants made money selling goods/religious artifacts to travelers 2. Muhammad/Mohammed a. 610 - Gabriel – one true God – Allah b. Preached monotheism in Meeca 1. Posed a threat to social and economic order a. Many of the merchant class hostile b. Make money from pilgrimages c. 622 – Travelled/flight to Yahtrib – Medina 1. Hijra – flight – marks beginning of Islamic era a. Beginning of calendar d. Preached in Medina 1. Last of long line of prophets – Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus a. Shares common history with Judaism and Christianity b. Does not accept Jesus as son of God c. Mohammad the last great prophet 2. Teachings written down as Quran (Koran) – recitation 3. Community of believers – Muslims e. 630 – returned to Mecca to conquer it f. 632 – death – most of Arabia under Musilm Control 3. Beliefs a. Islam – “submit” to God’s will b. Five duties “Pillars” 1. Faith – one true God Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet 2. Prayer – five times a day facing Mecca 3. Fasting – daylight hours of Ramadan 4. Alms – money to the poor/needy 5. Hajj – pilgrimage to Mecca if able c. All people equal before God d. All should be converted to the faith 4. Early leadership under caliphs a. Expanded aggressively to the north b. Within 300 years, Middle East, N. Africa, and S. Asia – fell to armies of Islam c. Weaknesses/decline of Persian/Byzantine Empire helped in spread 5. Empire grows as religion splits a. Conflict – Shia vs. Sunni – who should succeed Mohammad 1. Shia – only family member of Muhammad – descendants of Ali
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2. Sunni – chosen from among Umma – Muslim community a. Earliest caliphs legitimate rulers b. Early death – Abu Bakr becomes caliph – head of state, military, judge, religion 1. Caliph unique position – emperor + pope + chief justice 2. Ruled empire, but made important doctrinal decisions 3. Caliphate – theocratic Islamic Empire 4. Abu Bakr ideal a. Conflict upon death – family members or outside family b. Abu Bakr – best of both words – not in family, but one of first followers c. Later religion spread alone, initially spread simultaneously with politics d. Caliphs began to behave like monarchs 1. Problem – who will rule next 2. Abu Bakr > Umar > Uthman assassinated a. Back to family >
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Unit_2_Outline_with_Notes__2_ - 600 C.E.1450 I. Questions...

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