lecture 4 permeability

lecture 4 permeability - Hydraulic Conductivity Lecture 4...

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Hydraulic Conductivity Lecture 4 (Max) Qinhong Hu d l Hydrogeology (GEOL 4320 and 5328) Fall 2009
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Outline Hydraulic conductivity Approaches to measuring hydraulic nductivity co duc v y Examples of porosity and conductivity of some rocks Heterogeneity and anisotropy 2
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Hydraulic Conductivity K The coefficient of proportionality between the flow rate pp y (specific discharge) of water through a permeable medium in response to a hydraulic gradient (driving force) The density and kinematic viscosity of the water (other fluids : gas, oil, gasoline) affect K as a dimension of ke locity /d for SI; Khas a dimension of L/T like velocity ( m/d for SI; ft/d for hydrologist; cm/s for soil engineers; gal/day/ft 2 or gpd/ft 2 historically, which is called meinzer ) he laboratory or standard value of hydraulic The laboratory, or standard, value of hydraulic conductivity is defined for pure water at a temperature of 15.6 o C (60 o F) 3
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4
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Hydraulic Conductivity K e measure of ability of the porous or fractured the measure of ability of the porous or fractured media to transmit water; a function of both edia and fluid media and fluid g k K K= fluidity + permeability texture, packing, structure g k : intrinsic permeability (L 2 ) ; a property of media only ρ : mass density (M/L 3 ) g : gravitational acceleration (L/T 2 ) μ : dynamic viscosity (M/LT) and measures the resistance of fluid to shearing that is necessary for flow 5
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Hubbert (1956) ubbert M K 1956 ' Hubbert, M.K. 1956. Darcy s law and the field equation of flow of underground fluids. Transactions, American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, 207: 2- 9. 222 239. 6
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M. King Hubbert (1903 – 1989) Texas-born geologist and geophysicist gg g p y B.S. in 1926, M.S. in 1928, and Ph.D. in 1937 in the University of Chicago, studying geology, th ti nd ph i mathematics, and physics Shell Oil Company (1943–1964); USGS (1964– 1976); professors at Stanford and UCB ttp://en.wikipedia Won Penrose Medal of GSA in 1973 A member of NAS and AAAS http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/M._King _Hubbert King ubbert ward tablished by the National Ground M. King Hubbert Award established by the National Ground Water Association "to a person who has made a major science or engineering contribution to the ground water industry through research, technical papers, teaching, and practical applications“ First came up with the peak oil theory -- known as 'Hubbert's peak ' the 1950s arguing that U S oil production would peak in the 7 -- in the 1950s, arguing that U.S. oil production would peak in the early 1970s. He was right. And since 1981, the world has been using more oil than it has been finding.
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Intrinsic Permeability k m r f th r l ti ith A measure of the relative ease with which a porous medium can transmit a liquid under a potential gradient A property of the medium and is pp y dependent on the shape and size of the penings through which the liquid openings through which the liquid moves Has the dimension of area (L 2 ), cross- sectional area of a “characteristic” pore 1 μ m 2 = 10 -12 m 2 (used by USGS) 8
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lecture 4 permeability - Hydraulic Conductivity Lecture 4...

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