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Running head: BENCHMARK – MODELS OF ABNORMALITY 1 Benchmark - Models of Abnormality Grace Ganahl PSY-470 January 15 th , 2020
MODELS OF ABNORMALITY 2 Benchmark - Models of Abnormality Introduction This essay will identify and explain each of the six models of abnormality such as biological, psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, humanistic-existential, sociocultural (family- social and multicultural), and the developmental psychopathology perspective. Specific and current examples will provide insight to the application and treatment of each model. Biological Model The biological model can also be referred to as the medical model due to its nature of viewing an individual’s abnormalities from a medical standpoint. It views psychological abnormalities like a disease, stating that they have their own specific symptoms, causes, and cures; leading to the model’s assumption that psychological abnormalities are something that resides within a person that is causing problems and distress. (Dwyer, 2010) Researchers working with psychological abnormalities that fall within the biological model often discover specific genes passed down through generations that are responsible for a disease, such as dementia which has a known and testable cause. (Dwyer, 2010) Abnormal behavior often accompanies an individual when their genetic disposition has introduced a “disease” that has begun affecting neurotransmitters within the brain. Continuing with the example of dementia, treatment ranges from pharmacological to therapy. The former typically includes a prescribed drug supported through cholinesterase inhibitors and a glutamate antagonist. However, medications to maintain mental health might be situationally the best move for an individual struggling with dementia and antipsychotic and antidepressants are often utilized. Therapy prioritized to the maintenance of mental health is also beneficial. (Venkatesan, 2010, pg. 2)
MODELS OF ABNORMALITY 3 Psychodynamic Model The psychodynamic model is the oldest model and quite widely known. It prefaces with the belief that a person’s behavior, whether it be normal or abnormal, is largely determined by underlying psychological forces that the individual is not aware of. It is believed that these internal forces are dynamic as they interact with one another, and abnormal symptoms are the result of conflicts between the forces that affect behavior, thoughts, and emotions. (Comer, 2018) Sigmund Freud was the first to formulate the psychodynamic model and introduced the concept of the Id, Ego, and Superego. The Id describes the “pleasure principle” which attests to impulses

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