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13and14wsandnotes - Chapter 13 Molarity Mass and Dilution...

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Chapter 13: Molarity, % Mass, and Dilution Problems Molarity ( M ) __________1. What is the M of a solution made by mixing 60 g of NaCl and enough water to make the total volume 390 ml? (2.6) __________2. How many grams of NaOH are contained in a 400 ml of 3 M NaOH? (48) __________3. 60 g of HCl will make ___ ml of 2.5 M HCl. (657) __________4. 90 g of H 2 SO 4 are mixed with enough water to make a total of 150 ml, what is the M of the acid? (6.1) __________5. How many grams of NaOH will be needed to make 400 ml of 2.5 M NaOH? (40) 1
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% Mass _________6. 50 g of NaOH and 20 g of water are mixed. What is the % mass of water in the mixture? (28.6) _________7. 6 g of NaOH, 5 g of NaCl, and 30 g of KF are mixed. What is the % mass of KF in the mixture? (73.2) Dilution Equation _________8. 400 ml of 2.5 M HCl can be diluted to make ___ ml of 2 M HCl. (500) _________9. 250 ml of 0.6 M NaOH can be diluted to make ___ ml of 0.25 M NaOH. (600) _________10. How many ml of water must be added to 300 ml of 2 M HCl to make it 1.5 M HCl? (100) _________11. How many ml of water must be added to 400 ml of 3 M NaOH to make it 2.6 M NaOH? (61.5) 2
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Chapter 13- Solution Concentration. Terms: Solvent: component doing the dissolving and whose state is maintained. ( State meaning solid, liquid, or gas. ) Solute: being dissolved and whose state is changed. Two way of expressing the concentration of a solution are (a) Molarity or M for short, and (b) % Mass. Molarity (M) Molarity = moles of solute liters of solution Example: if 45 g of NaOH is placed in enough water to make 375 ml of a solution, what is its molarity? M = moles of solute/ liters of solution First , we must change 45 g of NaOH to moles: (45g NaOH/1)(1 mole NaOH/ 40 g NaOH) = 1.1 moles Second , the volume must be in liters. (375 ml/1)( 1L / 1000 ml) = .375 L Now substitute into the formula: M = moles/L = 1.1 moles / .375 L = 2.9 M The Molarity equation can be rearranged algebraically to calculate for moles and Liters. M = moles / L moles = M X L L = moles / M Example problem: 3 L of 4.5 M NaCl contain how many moles of NaCl? moles = M X L = 4.5 M X 3 L = 13.5 moles of NaCl. To calculate grams of NaCl: (13.5 moles NaCl / 1)( 58.5 g NaCl / mole) = 789.8 g 3
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% Mass Problems To calculate the % mass of a component in a solution, use the general math equations for percentage: (Part / total) X 100 If 30 g of NaCl is mixed with 344 g of water, what is the % NaCl in the solution?
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