Chapter 8 PM - Geology 3443 Spring 2006 Chapter 8 Faults...

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Geology 3443 Spring 2006 Introduction 1. Give a brief definition of each of the following terms: a) Fault-A zone which shear displacement has occurred b) Fault zone- an area with multiple faults c) Shear zone- a wide fault zone 2. Why are faults important- they often have economic values, ex: ores and oil and gas 3. Terminology: List each term in boldface as well as each term in tables 8.1 and 8.2. Make sure you understand their meaning. Horizontal fault- fault with dip of about 0 degrees Sub horizontal- fault w/ dip of 0-10 degrees Listric fault- Fault with a steep dip near surface and a shallow dip with depth, have curved profile Moderately dipping fault- fault w/ dip between 30-60 degrees Shallow dipping fault- fault w/ dip between 10-30 degrees Steeply dipping fault- fault w/ dip between 60-80 degrees Vertical fault- fault with a dip of about 90 degrees Allochton- thrust sheet of rock above detachment, means rock layer has moved Autochthon- footwall below detachment Contractional fault- fault whose displacement results in shortening Decollement- French word for detachment Detachment fault- fault where there has been a thrust style of movement Dip-slip fault- slip direction is parallel to dip of fault Extensional fault- fault that results in extension of layer Normal fault- normal fault where the hanging wall has slipped down Oblique slip fault- fault w/ slip direction that is not parallel to dip or strike of fault Par-autochthonus- where fault block has only moved a small distance Reverse fault- dip-slip fault where hanging wall has moved up Scissors fault- amount of slip changes along strike so that hanging wall block rotates around an axis that is perpendicular to fault surface Strike-slip fault- slip direction is parallel to fault strike Transfer fault- fault that accommodates relative motion between blocks of rocks that move because of other faults Slip- shear displacement in fault Fault splays- smaller fault offshoots of main fault Cataclasis- process involving crushing, grinding, frictional sliding of grains and rocks Wall- fault surface Fault block- body of rock that moved Hanging wall- fault block above fault Footwall- fault block below fault
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Dextral or right lateral- opposite wall of fault that you are standing on moves to right
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Chapter 8 PM - Geology 3443 Spring 2006 Chapter 8 Faults...

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