Europe, 150 -1650: Expansion, Reformation, and Religious Wars Allegory of the Jesuits and their missions in the four continents from the church of San Pedro, Lima, Peru. Anonymous painter (eighteenth century). St. Ignatius is flanked on his left by Francis Xavier, sporting a chasuble with Asian motifs. In the background, Jesuits living all over the world and occupying a variety of hierarchies within the church, including those wearing Chinese costumes and prelate robes, preside over the conversion of the faithful in India, China, Africa, and the Americas. Like Atlas, the Jesuits carry the globe on their shoulders. ■ The Discovery of a New World ■ The Reformation ■ The Reformation's Achievements ■ The Wars of Religion ■ Superstition and Enlightenment: The Battle Within IN THE SECOND DECADE OF THE SIX-TEENTH CENTURY, a powerful religious movement began in Saxony in Germany and spread rapidly throughout northern Europe, deeply affecting society and pol-itics as well as the spiritual lives of men and women. Attacking what they be-lieved to be superstitions and corrupt practices that robbed people of both their money and their peace of mind, Protes-tant reformers led a revolt against the me-dieval church. In a short period of time, hundreds of thousands of people from all social classes set aside the beliefs of centuries and adopted a more simplified religious practice. Protestants> more impressed by the human potential for evil than by the in -clination to do good, encouraged par-ents, teachers, and magistrates to be firm disciplinarians. On the other hand, Protestants also embraced many Re-naissance values, especially humanist educational reforms and the study of ancient languages. Here they found tools to master Scripture and challenge the papacy.
Chapter 16 Europe, 1500-1650: Expansion, Reformation, and Religious Wars 461 Protestantism was not the only reform movement to grow out of the grievances and reforms of the Late Middle Ages. Within the church itself a reform was emerging that would give birth to nevv religious or-ders, rebut Protestantism, and win back a great many of its converts. As different groups identified their political and social goals with either Protestantism or Catholi-cism, 100 years of bloody opposition between Protestants and Catholics darkened the second half of the sixteenth century and the first half of the sev-enteenth. The political conflict that had previously been confined to central Europe and a struggle for Lutheran rights and freedoms then shifted to west-ern Europe-to France, the Netherlands, England, and Scotland-and became a struggle for Calvinist recognition. In France, Calvinists fought Catholic rulers for the right to form their ovm communities, practice their chosen religion openly, and exclude from their lands those they deemed heretical. Dur-ing the Thirty Years' War ( 1618-1648), international armies of varying religious persuasions clashed in central and northern Europe. By 1649 English Puri-tans had overthrown the Stuart monarchy and