pom_212_mango_2005_handout

pom_212_mango_2005_handout - Mango Mangifera indica...

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Unformatted text preview: Mango Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae • • • • Drupe Native to Eastern Asia Size from 3 to 38 cm long Skin color ranges from green to yellow to mixtures with red Allergy due to 33pentadecyl catechol High in vitamin C and βcarotene • • Fruit on branched panicles Climacteric Fruit with Very Low Ethylene Production 1 Other Maturity Indices • • • • • Days from full bloom or fruit set Specific gravity Starch content Appearance of bloom on surface Stem color/dryness Specific gravity >1 Specific gravity <1 22 to 32ºC gives best flavor quality 32º 12 to 15ºC gives poor flesh color, high acidity 2 3 Irwing 4 Also 5 to 8% CO2 <2% O2 or >8% CO2 leads to skin 2 Discoloration, gray flesh, off-flavor offoff-flavor Storage Temperatures • Mature Green – Store at 12ºC 12º 12ºC – Sensitivity varies with harvest season • Early season fruit more susceptible • Ripe Fruit – Store at 8 to 10ºC 10º 10ºC 5 Days Until Skin Discoloration Appears from Chilling Injury For Various Cultivars of Mango Fruit Cultivar 0 days Kaew Rad Okrong Tongdum Nam Dok Mai Nungklangwun 10 <5 20 5 5 5 4 5 days <5 <5 5 <5 <5 <5 8 0 days 10 15 >30 5 5 25 12°C 5 days <5 <5 5 <5 <5 <5 0 days 10 25 >30 15 5 25 5 days <5 15 25 <5 <5 <5 Anthracnose Decay Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes Phomopsis citri or Diplodia natalensis Decay Control • Hot water immersion – 50 to 55ºC for 1 to 5 minutes 55º 55ºC • Fungicides, may be included in hot water • Bagging before harvest • Irradiation not very effective at doses allowed • UV-C irradiation UVUV-C 6 Disorders Disorders • Disorganized, broken cells, loss of vascular connection between stone and mesocarp – Jelly Seed • Begins early in fruit development Fruit Fly Disinfestation – Soft Nose • Detected in fully developed fruit – Stem-end Cavity StemStem-end • • • Begins early in fruit development Necrosis of mesocarp around cavity of mesocarp around cavity Calcium oxalate crystals present – Etch Browning • High number of cracks on cuticle of mango • Induced by mango sap, surfactants at high conc., detergents Quarantine Treatments • Hot Water – 46ºC for 60 to 90 minutes 46º 46ºC Effects of Heat Treatments Loss of chlorophyll Decrease in titratable acidity Increase in water loss Decay control or increase in susceptibility • Surface injury • Reduced rate of ripening • Failure to ripen properly • • • • • Hot Air – Heat with 50ºC forced air until seed surface reaches 50º 50ºC 48ºC (100 to 200 min.) 48º 48ºC • Irradiation – Generic fruit fly schedules range from 150 to 250 Gy • Controlled atmospheres – Tolerate 0.03 to 0.26% O2 and 72 to 82% CO2 for 4 days at 20ºC 20º 20ºC • High Temperature CA – Manila mango tolerated 0% O2 + 50% CO2 at <44ºC <44º <44ºC for up to 2 ½ hours 7 Hot Water Injury Hot Air Treatment Keitt mangoes Pitting Damage 8 9 10 Rate of Cooling without Hydrocooling Conditioning to Reduce Heat Damage or Chilling Injury • 40ºC for 8 hours reduced or eliminated 40º 40ºC injury from 45ºC water immersion for 30 45º 45ºC min, or 47ºC for 15 min. 47º 47ºC • 48 hours at 38ºC reduced chilling injury 38º 38ºC symptoms after storing fruit 11 days at 5ºC 5ºC Mango Harvest 11 Packinghouse Operations • • • Sorting Sizing Hot Water Treatment – Decay control or quarantine • Packing 12 13 14 15 16 17 ...
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