2_Principles of Sputtering Equipment

2_Principles of Sputtering Equipment - The Principles of...

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Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering The Principles of Sputtering Equipment S. Gupta Associate Professor Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering The University of Alabama
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Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Schematic of Conventional Diode Sputtering Scheme
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Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering RF Discharges RF diode and magnetron discharges are used for: Deposition of insulators from insulating targets Etching of insulators Space charge regions form around insulator if DC potential is applied Positive charge builds up on face of insulator This positive potential becomes equal to ion energy and stops further bombardment of the target (or substrate) RF plasma neutralizes positive charge by electron bombardment Deposition or etching takes place every half-cycle, when electrons charge surface negatively and accelerate ion bombardment.
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Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering RF Discharges Geometry effect Electrodes cannot be identically-sized in RF discharge in order to distinguish the cathode. DC self-bias RF power is applied through a blocking capacitor to the electrode. Net DC current to electrode is zero. Equal numbers of ions and electrons arrive at cathode. Because electrons are of much lower mass, they arrive at electrode faster, and bias it negatively. High electron current over a short time is balanced by low ion current over a longer time. V V A A 1 2 1 2 4 = ( )
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Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Cathodes RF diode Can sputter any material: insulators, magnetic material Low rates Poor uniformity RF/DC magnetron Magnetic confinement of the field leads to ExB drift Low pressure, low voltage High plasma density Improved rates, uniformity
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Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Magnetron confinement ( 29 m V t e E c v x B ( ) = + 1 F o r E e l e c t r o n g y r a t e s a b o u t m a g n e t i c f i e l d w i t h c i r c u l a r m o t i o n r T B e B m c e e c e e = = = - 0 2 3 8 1 2 1 , . . ; / ϖ I n a p p l i e d e l e c t r i c f i e l d t h e e l e c t r o n m o t i o n b e c o m e s c y c l o i d a l D r i f t v e l o c i t y v E x B B E v o l t c m B G a u s s i n c m d . ( / ) ( ) / s e c = =   2 8 1 0
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Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Magnetron Sputtering
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Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Magnetron Cathode Magnetron cathode design is critical for achieving good film uniformity, high target utilization, conformal step coverage.
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Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Sputtering Yield for Copper and Aluminum
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Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Reactive Sputtering DC reactive sputtering is used to deposit insulators
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This note was uploaded on 12/30/2010 for the course MTE 550 taught by Professor S.gupta during the Spring '08 term at Alabama.

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2_Principles of Sputtering Equipment - The Principles of...

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