MUSIC100 Chapter 11 - M USIC100 Chapter 11 T HE TWENT IET H...

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Unformatted text preview: M USIC100 Chapter 11 T HE TWENT IET H CENTURY AND BEYONG, PART I: T HE CLASSICAL SCENE An Overview History and the Arts, 1900-1939- In 1900, the movement known as Modernism began to affect all the arts: literature, painting, sculpture, architecture, and music- Composers rejected tonality, the harmonic basis of music since the seventeenth century, and adopted radically new harmonic structures- In this period of excitement, experimentation, and optimism, the greatest composers were Debussy, Schoenberg, and Stravinsky- World War I (1914-1918) shattered this sense of optimism- In this long drawn-out conflict ugly, brutal, and often senseless 40 million people died and 20 million were wounded- The greatest composers of the period between the wars (WWI and WWII) were still Schoenberg and Stravinsky (Debussy had died in 1918) but also included two students of Schoenberg Berg and Webern as well as Bartok in Hungary, Shostakovich in the Soviet Union, Britten in England, and Ives and Copland in the United States 1939-2000- World War I I (1939-1945) broke out only twenty-one years after the end of the First World War- Large numbers of people including scholars, artists, writers, composers, and performing musicians came from Europe to America as refugees- From 1945-1960s, two musical trends asserted themselves- The first was a tendency toward intellectualization- Music became so organized, so mathematical in its structure that many audiences turned away from classical music altogether- The second trend in this period involved radical experimentation, parallel in some ways to the period about 1900- Composers experimented with music in every conceivable way, throwing out all the conventionally accepted norms of music making- They put the compositional process into the hands of the performers- They challenged audiences and violated conventions of time, performing medium, and concert decorum- Most particularly, they experimented with sound- Conventional instruments were pushed to new limits, exotic instruments were introduced, and new instruments were invented- Most influential was the use of tape and then synthesizers and computers in the production of musical sounds- Since the mid-sixties, a new movement was evident in Western culture, a movement called Postmodernism- From the start of Postmodernism, everything was cast into doubt, including the worth and meaning of Western culture itself- Music made a radical move away from the intellectualized compositions of the postwar period toward a new accessibility of style- Composers began again to address their audiences- They borrowed ideas from rock music to appeal to a wider public- They expanded their frame of reference to include the rhythms, timbres, and harmonies of other countries- And many of them made a conscious return to traditional tonality, to provide an aural context and meaning that many Modernists had rejected General characteristics of Twentieth-Century Music- Music of the twentieth century embodied more experimentation and diversity...
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MUSIC100 Chapter 11 - M USIC100 Chapter 11 T HE TWENT IET H...

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