Chapter 24 Digestive System: Saliva- 99.5% water, 0.5% solutes (Ions and Buffers) , and digestive enzymes (Carbs: Salivary Amylase; Lipids: Lingual Lipase) Comes from salivary glands. DOES NOT DIGEST PROTEINS. Pancreatic isletsPart of pancreas with endocrine functions, secreting glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptideTypes of cell types in the pancreatic isletAlpha- secretes glucagon Beta- secretes insulinDelta-secretes somatostatinF cells- secrete polypeptideAlpha cells of Langerhans in pancreas Which digestive cells/organ/gland secretes glucagon?
Which hormone dominates during the absorptive state of digestion?
Which of the following digestive accessory organ produces a fluid that functions to emulsify dietary fats?
Which of the following is the primary function of the microvilli of the small intestine?
Chapter 25 Metabolism: 4 reactions in cellular respirations1. glycolysis: one glucose molecule into two pyruvic acid molecules2.Formation of acetyl CoA: prepares pyruvic acid for the krebs cycle3. Krebs cycle: oxidizing acetyl CoA into CO2, ATP, NADH, and FADH4. Electron transport chainElectron transport chainThese reactions oxidize NADH and FADH, and transfer their electrons through a series of electron carriers.Inner mitochondrial membraneThe metabolic reactions of the electron transport chain are restricted to theAerobic respirations. When oxygen is present, all 4 normal reactions occurAnaerobic respirations. When oxygen is not present, pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acidMetabolism during the absorptive stateIngested food reaches the bloodstream mainly as glucose, amino acids, and triglycerides (chylomicrons. Catabolism of glucose: most cells of the body produce the majority of ATP by catabolizing glucose via cellular respirationCatabolism of amino acids: amino acids enter hepatocytes where they are determined as keto acids. Protein synthesis: many amino acids enter body cells for synthesis of proteinsCatabolism of few dietary lipids: most are stored in adipose tissue, few are catabolized for energyWhen nutrients are in excess, they are stored.