Chapter 24 Digestive System:Saliva- 99.5% water, 0.5% solutes (Ions and Buffers) , and digestive enzymes (Carbs: Salivary Amylase; Lipids:Lingual Lipase) Comes from salivary glands. DOES NOT DIGEST PROTEINS.Pancreatic isletsPart of pancreas with endocrine functions, secreting glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, andpancreatic polypeptideTypes of cell types in the pancreatic isletAlpha- secretes glucagonBeta- secretes insulinDelta-secretes somatostatinF cells- secrete polypeptideAlpha cells of Langerhans in pancreasWhich digestive cells/organ/gland secretes glucagon?InsulinWhich hormone dominates during the absorptive state of digestion?Functions of the liverBile productioncarbohydrate metabolismlipid metabolismprotein metabolismprocessing of drugs and hormonesexcretion of bilirubinsynthesis of bile saltsstorage of vitamins and mineralsPhagocytosisactivation of vitamin D
LiverWhich of the following digestive accessory organ produces a fluid that functions to emulsify dietary fats?
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Histology of the small intestine- Submucosa, mucosa, muscularis, and serosa main layers- with absorptive cells, goblet cells, enter endocrine cells, and paneth cells.- with plicae circularis, villi, and microvilli-with duodenal glands- these secrete alkaline mucus to neutralize the gastric juice in the chyme-with lacteals in the villi which are lymphatic capillaries to absorb large fatsAbsorptionWhich of the following is the primary function of the microvilli of the small intestine?DuodenumThe exocrine component of the pancreas (releases enzymes via the pancreatic duct directly into theChapter 25 Metabolism:4 reactions in cellular respirations1. glycolysis: one glucose molecule into two pyruvic acid molecules2.Formation of acetyl CoA: prepares pyruvic acid for the krebs cycle3. Krebs cycle: oxidizing acetyl CoA into CO2, ATP, NADH, and FADH4. Electron transport chainElectron transport chainThese reactions oxidize NADH and FADH, and transfer their electrons through a series ofelectron carriers.Inner mitochondrial membraneThe metabolic reactions of the electron transport chain are restricted to theAerobic respirations.When oxygen is present, all 4 normal reactions occurAnaerobic respirations.When oxygen is not present, pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acidMetabolism during the absorptive stateIngested food reaches the bloodstream mainly as glucose, amino acids, and triglycerides (chylomicrons.Catabolism of glucose: most cells of the body produce the majority of ATP by catabolizing glucose via cellularrespirationCatabolism of amino acids: amino acids enter hepatocytes where they are determined as keto acids.Protein synthesis: many amino acids enter body cells for synthesis of proteinsCatabolism of few dietary lipids: most are stored in adipose tissue, few are catabolized for energyWhen nutrients are in excess, they are stored.