final-1-spring-2019-questions-and-answers.docx - A&P IV...

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A&P IVStudy GuideTwo other study suggestions: 1. Be able to describe in detail the course outcomes found in the syllabus2. Answer the question interspersed throughout the readings. If you can answer those, you will more likely be able to answer the final’s questions. Gastrointestinal Know anatomy and roles of a.Mouth **Molars**Premolars**Canines**Incisors1
A&P IVStudy GuideThe mouthis formed by the cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tongue Salivary glandslie outside the mouth and empty their contents into ducts which deliver saliva into the oral cavity.oOral Cavity 3 pairs: 1.Parotid 2.Submandibular 3.Sublingual Mechanical digestionChewing mixes food with saliva and forms a bolus which can be easily swallowed Chemical digestionSalivary amylase converts polysaccharides to disaccharides b. Pharynx The pharynx is a funnel shaped tube that extends from the internal nares to the esophagus posteriorly and to the larynx anteriorly The pharynx is composed of skeletal muscle and lined with mucous membranec. Esophagus The esophagus is a collapsible, muscular tube that lies posterior to the trachea and connects the pharynx to the stomach 2
A&P IVStudy Guide
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A&P IVStudy GuideThe stomach is a J-shaped enlargement of the GI tract Functions: 1.Mixes saliva, food, and gastric juice to form chyme 2.Serves as a reservoir for food before release into the small intestine 3.Secretes gastric juice which contains HClPepsinIntrinsic FactorGastric Lipase 4.Secretes gastrin(Hormone) into the blood Secretion and Regulation of HCI in the Stomach4
A&P IVStudy Guidee. Liver The liver is composed of ohepatocytes obile canaliculi, and hepatic sinusoidsThe liver synthesizes bile, which is important in the digestion and absorption (emulsification) of fats and cholesterol in the small intestineThe liver maintains normal blood glucose levels. Functions of the Liver and Gallbladder Carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism Processing of drugs and hormones Bilirubin excretion Bile salt synthesis StoragePhagocytosis5
A&P IVStudy GuideVitamin D activation f. Gallbladder The gallbladder stores bile until it is needed g. Pancreas Lies posterior to the stomach Produces enzymes that digest CarbohydratesProteinsFatsnucleic acids Produces sodium bicarbonate which buffers stomach acid Empties its contents into the duodenum h. Small Intestine Most of the digestion and absorption occur in the small intestine 1.Segmentations mix chime with digestive juices and bring food into contact with mucosa for absorption; peristalsis propels chime through small intestine 2.Completes digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids; begins and completes digestion of nucleic acids 3.Absorbs about 90% of nutrients and water that pass through digestive system Circular foldsincrease the surface area for digestion and absorption in the small intestine Mechanical Digestion in the SI Segmentation Localized contractions

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