mod- Bios 256 Final Exam Review Packet .docx - A&P IV Final...

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A&P IVFinal Exam Review PacketCh. 24DIGESTIVE PROCESSES1.Ingestion2.Digestion (mechanical and chemical)3.Motility (mixing and propulsion) 4.Secretion5.Absorption6.DefecationGI TRACT AND ACCESSORY DIGESTIVE STRUCTURESGI TRACT INNERVATION1
Autonomic NSoParasympathetic NV (enhances digestion)oSympathetic NV (inhibits or slows down digestion)Enteric Nervous SystemoSubmucosal plexusoMyenteric plexusENZYMES originating in the oral cavitySalivary glandsParotid glands (under the cheek bones)Submandibular glands (under the mandible)Sublingual glands (under the tongue)AllsecreteSALIVA, whichcontains:oMostly wateroIonsoBuffersoLysosymeoSalivary amylaseSalivary Amylase (made by thesalivary glands)-Break down carbohydrates-Converts Polysaccharides to monosaccharides, maltose, maltotrioseand alpha-dextrins-Deactivatedby stomach acidLingual Lipase (made by thelingual glands of the tongue)-From lingual glands of the tongue-Break down lipids-Activatedby HClof stomach-Converts triglycerides to fatty acids and monoglyceridesTHE SIGNIFICANT CELLS OF THE STOMACH AND THEIR SECRETIONS (GASTRIC JUICE)Parietal Cells-Secrete HCl-makes the chyme acidic-kills bacteria-denaturing (unfolding) proteins2
-activates pepsinalong with linguallipase.-Secrete intrinsic factor, which allows for absorption of vitamin B12 Chief Cells-The major stomach cells-Secrete pepsinogen,which is activated (by stomach acid) and becomes pepsin, a peptidase-Pepsinbreaks down proteins-Secrete gastric lipase-breaks down triglyceridesinto monoglyceridesand fattyacidsG Cells-Secrete Gastrin(hormone): contracts cardiac sphincter; loosens pyloric sphincter; promotes stomach motility; promotes secretion of pepsinogen from chief cells and HCl from parietal cellsMucous Cells-THEY SECRETE MUCOUS-Mucous forms a protective barrier against acidic chymeTHE SIGNIFICANT CELLS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE AND THEIR SECRETIONSPaneth Cells-Secrete lysozomeThe Enteroendocrine Cells-S Cells-Secrete secretinin response to acidic chyme, promoting release of HCO3-rich pancreatic juice; secondarily, secretin slows down secretion of gastric juice.-K Cells-Secrete GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide)-slows down secretion of gastric juice-stimulates insulin secretion-CCK Cells-Secrete cholecystokinin in response to amino acid and fatty acid-CCK stimulates digestive enzyme-rich pancreatic juice-relaxes the sphincter of Oddi -slows gastric emptying-promotes a feeling of satiety-causes contraction of the gallbladder-CCK and Secretin enhance each otherBrunner’s Glands-Secrete alkaline rich mucus to counter acidic chyme-Located in the duodenumThe Brush-border-Brush-border enzymes are inserted into the plasma membranes of the microvilli in the small intestineAlpha-dextrinase-Alpha-dextrins to glucoseMaltase-Maltose to glucoseLactase-Lactose to glucose and galactose3
Sucrase-Sucrose to glucose and fructoseEnterokinase-Converts trypsinogen to trypsinAminopeptidase-Further breaks down amino acids and peptides

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Term
Summer
Professor
Mcray
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