Chapter9learningchecks.pdf - Chapter 9 Solu.ons 1 Learning Check Iden(fy the solute in each of the following solu(ons A 2 g sugar(1 and 100 mL water(2 B

Chapter9learningchecks.pdf - Chapter 9 Solu.ons 1 Learning...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9 Solu.ons 1 Learning Check Iden(fy the solute in each of the following solu(ons: A. 2 g sugar (1) and 100 mL water (2) B. 60.0 mL of ethyl alcohol (1) and 30.0 mL of methyl alcohol (2) C. 55.0 mL water (1) and 1.50 g NaCl (2) D. Air: 200 mL O2 (1) and 800 mL N2 (2) 2 Solu.on Iden(fy the solute in each of the following solu(ons: A. sugar (1) B. methyl alcohol (2) C. NaCl (2) D. O2 (1) 3 Learning Check Solid LiCl is added to water. It dissolves because: A. The Li+ ions are aNracted to the 1) oxygen atom (δ-­‐) of water. 2) hydrogen atom (δ +) of water. B. The Cl– ions are aNracted to the 1) oxygen atom (δ-­‐) of water. 2) hydrogen atom (δ +) of water. 4 Solu.on Solid LiCl is added to water. It dissolves because: A. The Li+ ions are aNracted to the 1) oxygen atom (δ-­‐) of water. B. The Cl– ions are aNracted to the 2) hydrogen atom (δ +) of water. 5 Learning Check Will each of the following solutes dissolve in water? Why or why not? 1) Na2SO4 2) gasoline (nonpolar) 3) I2 4) HCl 6 Solu.on Will each of the following solutes dissolve in water? Why or why not? 1) Na2SO4 Yes. The solute is ionic. 2) gasoline No. The solute is nonpolar. 3) I2 No. The solute is nonpolar. 4) HCl Yes. The solute is polar. Most polar and ionic solutes dissolve in water because water is a polar solvent. 7 Learning Check Complete each of the following equa(ons for strong electrolytes dissolving in water. H2O A. CaCl2 (s) ? 1) CaCl2(s) 2) Ca2+(aq) + Cl2−(aq) 3) Ca2+(aq) + 2Cl−(aq) H2O B. K3PO4 (s) ? 1) 3K+(aq) + PO43−(aq) 2) K3PO4(s) 3) K3+(aq) + P3−(aq) + O4−(aq) 8 Solu.on Complete each of the following equa(ons for strong electrolytes dissolving in water. H2O A. CaCl2 (s) ? 3) Ca2+(aq) + 2Cl−(aq) H2O B. K3PO4 (s) ? 1) 3K+(aq) + PO43−(aq) 9 Learning Check A. In 1 mole of Fe3+, there are 1) 1 Eq 2) 2 Eq 3) 3 Eq B. In 2.5 mole of SO42−, there are 1) 2.5 Eq 2) 5.0 Eq 3) 1.0 Eq C. An IV boNle contains only NaCl. If the Na+ is 34 mEq/L, the Cl− is 1) 34 mEq/L 2) 0 mEq/L 3) 68 mEq/L 10 Solu.on A. In 1 mole of Fe3+, there are 3) 3 Eq B. In 2.5 mole of SO42−, there are 2) 5.0 Eq 2.5 moles SO42− x 2 Eq = 5.0 Eq of SO42− 1 mole SO42− C. An IV boNle contains only NaCl. If the Na+ is 34 mEq/L, the Cl− is 1) 34 mEq/L 11 Learning Check At 40 °C, the solubility of KBr is 80 g/100 g of H2O. Iden(fy the following solu(ons as either (S) saturated or (U) unsaturated. Explain. A. 60 g KBr added to 100 g of water at 40 °C. B. 200 g KBr added to 200 g of water at 40 °C. C. 25 g KBr added to 50 g of water at 40 °C. 12 Solu.on A. U 60 g of KBr/100 g of water is less than the solubility of 80 g of KBr/100 g of water. B. S 200 g KBr added to 200 g of water at 40 °C. This is the same as 100 g of KBr in 100 g of water, which is more than the solubility of 80 g of KBr/100 g of water at 40 °C. C. U 25 g KBr added to 50 g of water at 40 °C. This is the same as 50 g of KBr in 100 g of water, which is less than the solubility of 80 g of KBr/100 g of water at 40 °C. 13 Learning Check A. Why could a boNle of carbonated drink possibly burst (explode) when it is lee out in the hot sun? B. Why do fish die in water that is too warm? 14 Solu.on A. Why could a boNle of carbonated drink possibly burst (explode) when it is lee out in the hot sun? The pressure in a boNle increases as the gas leaves solu(on as it becomes less soluble at high temperatures. As pressure increases, the boNle could burst. B. Why do fish die in water that is too warm? Because O2 gas is less soluble in warm water, fish cannot obtain enough O2 to survive. 15 Learning Check Use the solubility rules to determine if each salt is (S) soluble or (I) insoluble. Explain. A. Na2SO4 B. MgCO3 C. AgCl D. MgCl2 16 Solu.on A. Na2SO4 (S) soluble; contains Na+ B. MgCO3 (I) insoluble; contains carbonates C. AgCl (I) insoluble; insoluble chloride D. MgCl2 (S) soluble; only chlorides of Pb2+, Ag+, and Hg22+ are insoluble 17 Learning Check Write the formula of an insoluble salt, if any, and the net ionic equa(on for each of the following mixtures: A. BaCl2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) ? B. AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq) ? C. KNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) ? 18 Solu.on A. BaCl2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) ? BaSO4(s) Ba2+(aq) + SO42−(aq) BaSO4(s) B. AgNO3(aq) + KCl(aq) ? AgCl(s) Ag+(aq) + Cl−(aq) AgCl(s) C. KNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) ? None; all combina(ons of ions are soluble salts. 19 Learning Check A solu(on is prepared with 15.0 g of Na2CO3 and 235 g of H2O. What is the mass percent (m/m) of the solu(on? 1) 15.0%(m/m) Na2CO3 2) 6.38%(m/m) Na2CO3 3) 6.00%(m/m) Na2CO3 20 Solu.on 3) 6.00% (m/m) Na2CO3 STEP 1 Given: 15.0 g of Na2CO3; 235 g of H2O Need: mass percent (m/m) of Na2CO3 solu(on STEP 2 Plan: mass percent(m/m) = g of solute x 100% g of solu(on Calculate mass of solu(on = 15.0 g + 235 g = 250 g of Na2CO3 solu(on 21 Solu.on (con.nued) STEP 3 Write equali(es and conversion factors: 15.0 g of Na2CO3 = 250 g of solu(on 15.0 g Na2CO3 and 250 g solu(on 250 g solu(on 15.0 g of Na2CO3 STEP 4 Set up problem: mass = 15.0 g Na2CO3 x 100 = 6.00%(m/m) Na2CO3 percent 250 g solu(on (m/m) 22 Learning Check Write two conversion factors for each solu(on: A. 8.50% (m/m) NaOH B. 5.75% (v/v) ethanol C. 4.8% (m/v) HCl 23 Solu.on A. 8.50% (m/m) NaOH 8.50 g NaOH and 100 g solu(on 100 g solu(on 8.50 g NaOH B. 5.75% (v/v) ethanol 5.75 mL ethanol and 100 mL solu(on 100 mL solu(on 5.75 mL ethanol C. 4.8% (m/v) HCl 4.8 g HCl and 100 mL HCl 100 mL solu(on 4.8 g HCl 24 Learning Check How many grams of NaOH are needed to prepare 75.0 g of 14.0% (m/m) NaOH solu(on? 1) 10.5 g of NaOH 2) 75.0 g of NaOH 3) 536 g of NaOH 25 Solu.on STEP 1 Given: 75.0 g of NaOH solu(on; 14.0% (m/m) NaOH solu(on Need: g of NaOH (solute) STEP 2 g of solu(on g of NaOH STEP 3 Write equali(es and conversion factors: 14.0 g of NaOH = 100 of NaOH solu(on 14.0 g NaOH and 100 g NaOH solu(on 100 g NaOH solu(on 14.0 g NaOH STEP 4 Set up problem to cancel the grams of solu(on: 75.0 g NaOH solu(on x 14.0 g NaOH = 10.5 g of NaOH 100 g NaOH solu(on 26 Learning Check How many milliliters of a 5.75% (v/v) ethanol solu(on can be prepared from 2.25 mL of ethanol? 1) 2.56 mL 2) 12.9 mL 3) 39.1 mL 27 Solu.on STEP 1 Given: 2.25 mL of ethanol (solute) 5.75% (v/v) ethanol solu(on Need: mL of ethanol solu(on STEP 2 Plan: mL of ethanol mL of solu(on STEP 3 Write equali(es and conversion factors: 100 mL of solu(on = 5.75 mL of ethanol 5.75 mL ethanol and 100 mL solu(on 100 mL solu(on 5.75 mL ethanol STEP 4 Set up problem to cancel the mL of ethanol: 2.25 mL ethanol x 100 mL solu(on = 39.1 mL of solu(on 5.75. mL ethanol 28 Learning Check How many grams of NaOH are needed to prepare 125mL of a 8.80% (m/v) NaOH solu(on? 1) 7.04 g of NaOH 2) 11.0 g of NaOH 3) 14.2 g of NaOH 29 Solu.on 2) 11.0 g of NaOH STEP 1 Given: 125 mL of NaOH (solu(on) 8.80% (m/v) NaOH solu(on Need: g of NaOH (solute) STEP 2 Plan: mL of NaOH solu(on g of NaOH 30 Solu.on (con.nued) STEP 3 Write equality and conversion factors: 8.80 g of NaOH = 100 mL of NaOH solu(on 8.80 g NaOH and 100 mL NaOH solu(on 100 mL NaOH solu(on 8.80 g NaOH STEP 4 Set up the problem: 125 mL NaOH solu(on x 8.80 g NaOH 100 mL NaOH solu(on = 11.0 g of NaOH 31 Learning Check What is the molarity of a solu(on if 325 mL of the solu(on contains 46.8 g of NaHCO3? 1) 0.557 M NaHCO3 2) 1.44 M NaHCO3 3) 1.71 M NaHCO3 32 Solu.on 3) 1.71 M STEP 1 Given: 46.8 g of NaHCO3 325 mL (0.325 L) NaHCO3 solu(on Need: molarity (mole/L) of NaHCO3 solu(on STEP 2 Plan: g of NaHCO3 moles of NaHCO3 molarity STEP 3 Write equali(es and conversion factors: 1 mole of NaHCO3 = 84.0 g of NaHCO3 1 mole NaHCO3 and 84.0 g NaHCO3 84.0 g NaHCO3 1 mole NaHCO3 33 Solu.on (con.nued) STEP 4 Setup problem to calculate moles and molarity of NaHCO3: 46.8 g NaHCO3 x 1 mole NaHCO3 84.0 g NaHCO3 = 0.557 mole of NaHCO3 0.557 mole NaHCO3 = 1.71 mole NaHCO3 0.325 L NaHCO3 solu(on 1 L NaHCO3 solu(on = 1.71 M NaHCO3 34 Learning Check What is the molarity of a KNO3 solu(on if 225 mL of the solu(on contains 34.8 g of KNO3? 1) 0.344 M 2) 1.53 M 3) 15.5 M 35 Solu.on 2) 1.53 M KNO3 STEP 1 Given: 34.8 g of KNO3 225 mL (0.225 L) KNO3 solu(on Need: molarity (mole/L) of KNO3 solu(on STEP 2 Plan: g of KNO3 moles of KNO3 molarity STEP 3 Write equali(es and conversion factors: 1 mole of KNO3 = 101.1 g of KNO3 1 mole KNO3 and 101.1 g KNO3 101.1 g KNO3 1 mole KNO3 36 Solu.on (con.nued) STEP 4 Set up problem to calculate moles and molarity of KNO3: 34.8 g KNO3 x 1 mole KNO3 101.1 g KNO3 = 0.344 mole of KNO3 0.344 mole KNO3 = 1.53 mole KNO3 0.225 L KNO3 solu(on 1 L KNO3 solu(on = 1.53 M KNO3 In one setup: 34.8 g KNO3 x 1 mole KNO3 x 1 = 1.53 M 101.1 g KNO3 0.225 L 37 Learning Check How many grams of AlCl3 are needed to prepare 125 mL of a 0.150 M solu(on? 1) 20.0 g of AlCl3 2) 16.7 g of AlCl3 3) 2.50 g of AlCl3 38 Solu.on 3) 2.50 g of AlCl3 STEP 1 Given: 125 mL (0.125 L) of solu(on 0.150 M AlCl3 solu(on Need: g of AlCl3 STEP 2 Plan: L of solu(on moles of AlCl3 g of AlCl3 STEP 3 Write equali(es and conversion factors: 1 mole of AlCl3 = 133.5 g of AlCl3 1 mole AlCl3 and 133.5 g AlCl3 133.5 g AlCl3 1 mole AlCl3 39 Solu.on (con.nued) STEP 3 (con(nued) 1 L of KCl = 0.150 mole of AlCl3 1 L and 0.150 mole AlCl3 0.150 mole AlCl3 1 L STEP 4 Set up problem: 0.125 L x 0.150 mole AlCl3 x 133.5 g = 2.50 g of AlCl3 1 L 1 mole AlCl3 40 Learning Check How many milliliters of 2.00 M HNO3 contain 24.0 g of HNO3? 1) 12.0 mL of 2.00 M HNO3 2) 83.3 mL of 2.00 M HNO3 3) 190 mL of 2.00 M HNO3 41 Solu.on 3) 190 mL of HNO3 STEP 1 Given: 24.0 g of HNO3 2.00 M HNO3 solu(on Need: mL of HNO3 solu(on STEP 2 Plan: g of HNO3 moles of HNO3 L of HNO3 solu(on STEP 3 Write equali(es and conversion factors: 1 mole of = 63.0 g of HNO3 1 mole HNO3 and 63.0 g HNO3 63.0 g HNO3 1 mole HNO3 42 Solu.on (con.nued) STEP 4 Set up problem to calculate volume, in mL, of HNO3: 24.0 g HNO3 x 1 mole HNO3 x 1000 mL HNO3 63.0 g HNO3 2.00 moles HNO3 = 190 mL of a 2.00 M HNO3 solu(on 43 Learning Check What is the percent (m/v) of a solu(on prepared by dilu(ng 10.0 mL of 9.00% NaOH to 60.0 mL? 44 Solu.on What is the percent (m/v) of a solu(on prepared by dilu(ng 10.0 mL of 9.00% NaOH to 60.0 mL? STEP 1 Prepare a table: C1 = 9.00% (m/v) V1 = 10.0 mL C2 = ? V2 = 60.0 mL STEP 2 Solve the dilu(on expression for the unknown: C1V1 = C2V2 C2 = C1V1 V2 STEP 3 Set up the problem using known quan((es: C2 = C1V1 = (10.0 mL)(9.00%) = 1.50% (m/v) V2 60.0 mL 45 Learning Check What is the final volume (mL) of 15.0 mL of a 1.80 M KOH diluted to give a 0.300 M solu(on? 1) 27.0 mL of a 1.80 M KOH 2) 60.0 mL of a 1.80 M KOH 3) 90.0 mL of a 1.80 M KOH 46 Solu.on What is the final volume (mL) of 15.0 mL of a 1.80 M KOH diluted to give a 0.300 M solu(on? STEP 1 Prepare a table: M1 = 1.80 M M2 = 0.300 M V1 = 15.0 mL V2 = ? STEP 2 Solve the dilu(on expression for the unknown: M1V1 = M2V2 STEP 3 Set up the problem using known quan((es: V2 = M1V1 = (1.80 M)(15.0 mL) = 90.0 mL M2 0.300 M 47 Learning Check A mixture that has solute par(cles that do not seNle out but are too large to pass through a semipermeable membrane is called a 1) solu(on 2) colloid 3) suspension 48 Solu.on A mixture that has solute par(cles that do not seNle out but are too large to pass through a semipermeable membrane is called a 2) colloid 49 Learning Check A semipermeable membrane separates a 10% (m/ v) starch solu(on (A) from a 5% (m/v) starch solu(on (B). If starch is a colloid, fill in the blanks in the statements below. 1. Solu(on ____ has the greater osmo(c pressure. 2. Water ini(ally flows from ___ into ___. 3. The level of solu(on ____ will be lower. 50 Solu.on A semipermeable membrane separates a 10% (m/v) starch solu(on (A) from a 5% (m/v) starch solu(on (B). If starch is a colloid, fill in the blanks in the statements below. 1. Solu(on A has the greater osmo(c pressure. 2. Water ini(ally flows from B into A. 3. The level of solu(on B will be lower. 51 Learning Check Indicate if each of the following solu(ons is 1) isotonic 2) hypotonic 3) hypertonic A. ____ 2% (m/v) NaCl solu(on B. ____ 1% (m/v) glucose solu(on C. ____ 0.5% (m/v) NaCl solu(on D. ____ 5% (m/v) glucose solu(on 52 Solu.on Indicate if each of the following solu(ons is 1) isotonic 2) hypotonic 3) hypertonic A. _3_ 2% (m/v) NaCl solu(on B. _2_ 1% (m/v) glucose solu(on C. _2_ 0.5% (m/v) NaCl solu(on D. _1_ 5% (m/v) glucose solu(on 53 Learning Check When placed in each of the following, indicate if a red blood cell will 1) not change 2) hemolyze 3) crenate A. ____ 5% (m/v) glucose solu(on B. ____ 1% (m/v) glucose solu(on C. ____ 0.5% (m/v) NaCl solu(on D. ____ 2% (m/v) NaCl solu(on 54 Solu.on When placed in each of the following, indicate if a red blood cell will 1) not change 2) hemolyze 3) crenate A. _1_ 5%(m/v) glucose solu(on B. _2_ 1%(m/v) glucose solu(on C. _2_ 0.5%(m/v) NaCl solu(on D. _3_ 2%(m/v) NaCl solu(on 55 Learning Check Each of the following mixtures is placed in a dialyzing bag and immersed in pure water. Which substance, if any, will be found in the water outside the bag? A. 10% (m/v) KCl solu(on B. 5% (m/v) starch solu(on C. 5% (m/v) NaCl and 5% (m/v) starch solu(ons 56 Solu.on Each of the following mixtures is placed in a dialyzing bag and immersed in pure water. Which substance, if any, will be found in the water outside the bag? A. 10%(m/v) KCl solu(on: KCl ( K+, Cl−) B. 5%(m/v) starch solu(on: None, starch is retained. C. 5%(m/v) NaCl and 5%(m/v) starch solu(ons: NaCl (Na+, Cl−) will be found in the water outside the bag, but the starch is retained inside the bag. 57 ...
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