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3PTYS_206_craters - PYTS/ASTR 206 Craters q 1 Homework#1...

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PYTS/ASTR 206 – Craters 1 Homework #1 returned Grades were well distributed – Average was a high C Average question results 1 – 5 were 74%, 72%, 77%, 57%, 59% We’re happy to talk about the homework – tomorrow! Solutions posted after this lecture No discussions with us for 24 hours Homework #2 posted on website after this lecture One week to finish
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PYTS/ASTR 206 – Craters 2 PTYS/ASTR 206 – The Golden Age of Planetary Exploration Shane Byrne – [email protected] Craters
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PYTS/ASTR 206 – Craters 3 In this lecture… Introduction to craters Characteristics of craters Bowls, rims and ejecta blankets Nuclear test results Simple vs complex craters Crater formation Impacts and Energy Excavation Relaxation e.g. Meteor crater, Chicxulub Atmospheric effects E.g. Tunguska Crater populations Dating a planetary surface
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PYTS/ASTR 206 – Craters 4 Where do we find craters? – Everywhere! Cratering is the one geologic process that every solid solar system body experiences… Mercury Venus Moon Earth Mars Asteroids
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PYTS/ASTR 206 – Craters 5 Morphology changes as craters get bigger Pit → Bowl Shape→ Central Peak → Central Peak Ring → Multi-ring Basin Moltke – 1km 10 microns Euler – 28km Schrödinger – 320km Orientale – 970km
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PYTS/ASTR 206 – Craters 6 Origin of impactor craters Asteroid fragments leave the main asteroid belt From collisions with each other Become Near-Earth Asteroids Kuiper Belt Objects leave the Kuiper belt From collisions with each other Become Jupiter Family Comets Steady trickle of the objects Less common today than billions of years ago
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PYTS/ASTR 206 – Craters 7 Simple vs. complex Characteristics of craters Moltke – 1km Euler – 28km Melosh, 1989
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PYTS/ASTR 206 – Craters 8 Meteor Crater – 1.2 km Common crater features Overturned flap at edge Gives the crater a raised rim Reverses stratigraphy Eject blanket Continuous for ~1 R c Breccia Pulverized rock on crater floor Melosh, 1989
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PYTS/ASTR 206 – Craters 9 Craters are point-source explosions Was fully realized in 1940s and 1950s test explosions Three main implications: Crater depends on the impactor’s kinetic energy – NOT JUST SIZE Impactor is much smaller than the crater it produces Meteor crater impactor was ~50m in size
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