PTYS_411_511_0_solar_system_formation

PTYS_411_511_0_solar_system_formation - PYTS 411/511 Solar...

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PYTS 411/511– Solar System Formation 1 PTYS 411/511 Geology and Geophysics of the Solar System Shane Byrne – shane@lpl.arizona.edu Background is from NASA Planetary Photojournal PIA0804 Solar System Formation
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PYTS 411/511– Solar System Formation 2 In this lecture… Review of the solar system Structure Composition Dynamics Giant Molecular Clouds The raw material Formation steps Stars and Disks Planetesimals Terrestrial Planets Giants Planets Small Bodies and Planet Migration Cleaning up the Mess
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PYTS 411/511– Solar System Formation 3 Overall solar system structure Inner rocky planets Mercury 0.39 AU Venus 0.72 AU Earth 1.00 AU Mars 1.52 AU Asteroid belt (2-4 AU) Hundreds of members Several groups Sizes from dust to ~950 km (Ceres) Giant planets Jupiter 5.2 AU Saturn 9.6AU Uranus 19.2 AU Neptune 30.1 AU Kuiper Belt (30-50 AU) Contains Pluto Several groups Sizes from dust to >2400 km (Eris) Oort cloud Long period comet reservoir Affected by passing stars
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PYTS 411/511– Solar System Formation 4 Solar composition Bulk composition of the solar system Jupiter still has roughly solar abundances Saturn is helium deficient at its surface Other planets are highly enriched in heavier elements
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PYTS 411/511– Solar System Formation 5 Inner planets are composed of rock and iron Heated by radioactive decay 82% M Å 5.5% M Å 11% M Å 1.2% M Å
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PYTS 411/511– Solar System Formation 6 Asteroid belt is compositionally zoned Ice-free asteroids close to the sun Icier asteroids further out Meteorites Chondrites mostly reflect solar composition Provide the timing constraints Ceres ~25% water ice
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PYTS 411/511– Solar System Formation 7 Giant planet satellites get icier with increasing distance from the Sun Saturn’s satellites are very ice rich But… This trend is reverses at Uranus Preference of oxygen for carbon monoxide vs. water ice Ganymede 1940 kg m -3 (Jupiter) Iapetus 1030 kg m -3 (Saturn) Titania 1700 kg m -3 (Uranus) Warmer Jupiter ~ 5AU Saturn ~10 AU Cooler Uranus ~19 AU Neptune ~30 AU C CH 4 CO O H 2 O CO N NH 3 N 2
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PYTS 411/511– Solar System Formation 8 Gas giant planets: Jupiter and Saturn Similar rock/ice cores of about 10 earth masses Large hydrogen envelopes – molecular and metallic Ice Giant Planets: Uranus and Neptune Rocky cores Water and Ammonia interiors Large hydrogen molecular envelopes M 318 M 95 M 5 . 14 M 2 . 17
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PYTS 411/511– Solar System Formation 9 Dynamical state of the solar system Low inclinations and eccentricities – very disk like Sun and most planetary bodies orbiting and (mostly) spinning in the same direction Theories of solar system formation involving a disk of material… Starting with Kant in 1755! Wood, The New Solar System.
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PTYS_411_511_0_solar_system_formation - PYTS 411/511 Solar...

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