philo quiz no 2 (qn and ans)

philo quiz no 2 (qn and ans) - Philo quiz #2 1. Categorical...

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Philo quiz #2 1. Categorical imperative is to be absolute about what is right and what is wrong. It would denote an absolute, unconditional requirement that exerts its authority in all circumstances. There’s no such thing as a case in which have to depend on the situation to know whether is right or wrong. Also, for Kant, neither motives nor consequences count to determine the rightness of an action. Everything would be either black or white, there’s no such case as in the middle. He mentioned this in: “I ought never to act except in such a way that I can also will that my maxim should become a universal law.” 2. I think Kant would say that an action is right when it’s done from a good will. And a will is good if it meets 3 conditions, which is first when the maxim on which its action is based can be universalized, second, when it freely accept its duty, and third when it treats people as ends, not means. So if an action has met all of these, it is considered to be a right action. 3. Aristotle meant that people shouldn’t go too extreme on either ends, virtue must have the quality of aiming at the intermediate, for it is this that is concerned with passions and actions, and in these there is excess, defect, and the intermediate. For instance, between fear and confidence, when it was given a scale of 1 to 10, with fear as no 1 and confidence as no 10. People shouldn’t be at the point of 1 or 10, where it may be felt both too much and too little, and in both cases not well. However, to feel them at the right times, with reference to the right objects, towards the right people, with the right motive, and in the right way, is what is both intermediate and best, and this is characteristic of virtue. Similarly with regard to actions also there is excess, defect, and the intermediate. Now virtue is concerned with passions and actions, in which excess is a form of failure, and so is defect, while the intermediate is praised and is a form of success; and being praised and being successful are both characteristics of virtue. Therefore virtue is a kind of mean, since, as we have seen, it aims at what is intermediate. Also, the mean is to be determined by a rational principle. 4. An example of a moral dilemma would be that for instance, during the year when the
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philo quiz no 2 (qn and ans) - Philo quiz #2 1. Categorical...

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