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Unformatted text preview: China: Communist Anti-Imperialism I) Introduction: The “Crisis of Meaning” Outside the West: Questioning the Western Imperialist Order-doubts in imperialist world-hypocrisy that the enlightenment doesn't apply to us. China and India are centers of anti-colonialism. Path to national independence becomes major project of the non-western world. Story of the non-western world finding own autonomy, defining world order. Story of empowerment. A) Defining the Path to “National Liberation”-used to define process they follow in which one might argue that initiative in global western development shifts to the non- western world. National liberation didn't turn out to be so simple. To become an egalitarian nation state in the contemporary world order: would bemuch more difficult than first thought. Project of non-western world is still a response to the west and need to escape from that. Parameters are set by the specific impact that imperialism had on that country. 2 major paths: liberal democracy and communism: developed in west. Terminology of nation itself as political unit, right for independence is a western concept. Comes out of enlightenment project and political ideology. Much more difficult to implement these concepts in non-western projects. Define the major paths that are taken by huge wave of non-western anti-imperialists around the world. B) The Difficulties of Escaping Western Influence C) Different Models of Non-Western Anti-Imperialist Nationalism : first ingredient: specific experience of imperialism in each of these countries that defines or limits what they can do to create an independent state. Second ingredient: what is the ideology adopted by the new nationalist elites. 3 rd ingredient: economic, social ,and cultural conditions of the place itself. Ends up being indigenous to their own societies even though they are taking these concepts from the west. Not just story of imitation of the west: national imitation and struggle to escape from western world. II) The Chinese Case A) The Communist Model in the Non-Western World (vs. Russia)-major difference however. Similarities: both undertake communist rev. in largely rural, peasant society. Chinese communism emerges in a context of anti-imperialism: Chinese case in nationalist (unlike Russia). Blending of nationalism, communism, anti-imperialism: only comes together in the non-western world. B) Western Imperialism in China-before western incursion, China was an empire that had been a unified state since the 13 th century: had been one of the most stable. Ruling classes developed a sense of cultural superiority: similar to European nations. First appeared thru trading outposts: Portuguese and Dutch traders. Trade between china and the west remains limited thru 19 th century. Limits emperor put on the trade prevented the incursion from spreading rapidly. Chinese wouldn't buy any western goods. Limitation keeps trade limited/balanced for several 100 years. Opium changes this all. Opium is illegal, but western traders illegally import it. Chinese officials have to be bribed: leads to massive corruption and millions of addicts. By 1830s Chinese emperor realizes he has huge corruption and millions of addicts....
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This note was uploaded on 01/03/2011 for the course MMW 6 taught by Professor Chang during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.
- Spring '08