Newest Bios 256 Midterm Exam Review Packet-1.docx - A&P IV...

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A&P IVMidterm Exam Review PacketCh. 24DIGESTIVE PROCESSES1.Ingestion2.Digestion (mechanical and chemical)3.Motility (mixing and propulsion)4.Secretion5.Absorption6.Defecation
GI TRACT AND ACCESSORY DIGESTIVE STRUCTURESBE ABLE TO IDENTIFY EACH ORGAN ON THE IMAGE ABOVE.GI TRACT INNERVATIONAutonomic NSoParasympathetic NV (enhances digestion)oSympathetic NV (inhibits or slows down digestion)Enteric Nervous SystemoSubmucosal plexusoMyenteric plexus
Be able to identify all parts of the GI tractWhat are the histological significances of the GI tract?
ENZYMES originating in the oral cavityWhat are the functions of the oral cavity?Salivary glandsParotid glands (under the cheek bones)Submandibular glands (under the mandible)Sublingual glands (under the tongue)AllsecreteSALIVA,whichcontains:oMostly wateroIonsoBuffersoLysosymeoSalivary amylaseSalivary Amylase (made by thesalivary glands)-Break downcarbohydrates-Converts Polysaccharides tomonosaccharides,maltose,maltotrioseandalpha-dextrins-Deactivatedby stomachacidLingual Lipase (made by thelingual glands of the tongue)-From lingual glands of the tongue-Break downlipids-ActivatedbyHClof stomach-Converts triglycerides tofatty acids and monoglycerides-What are the components of saliva?
Among these polynucleotides, what is digested in the oral cavity? (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids,carbohydrates)THE SIGNIFICANT CELLS OF THE STOMACH AND THEIR SECRETIONS (GASTRIC JUICE)Parietal Cells-SecreteHCl-makes the chyme acidic-kills bacteria-denaturing (unfolding) proteins-activatespepsinalong withlinguallipase.-Secreteintrinsic factor,which allows for absorption of vitamin B12Chief Cells-The major stomach cells-Secretepepsinogen,which is activated (by stomach acid) and becomespepsin, a peptidase-Pepsinbreaks downproteins-Secretegastric lipase-breaks downtriglyceridesintomonoglyceridesandfattyacidsG Cells-SecreteGastrin(hormone): contracts cardiac sphincter; loosens pyloric sphincter; promotes stomachmotility; promotes secretion of pepsinogen from chief cells and HCl from parietal cellsMucous Cells-THEY SECRETE MUCOUS-Mucous forms a protective barrier against acidic chyme

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Term
Summer
Professor
Mcray
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