Phase 8 AppendixAppendix on EthicsConsequentialismDefined: “the view that normative properties ddl” (SEP)*depend only on consequences” (SEP)*Basic principle: “an act is morally right if and lif th ttiithd th t iifonly if that act maximizes the good, that is, if and only if the total amount of good for all minus the total amount of bad for all is greater than thisthe total amount of bad for all is greater than this net amount for any incompatible act available to the agent on that occasion.”(SEP)Examples: Utilitarianism.3COMM 391, UBC MIS*SEP: Stanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyAbsolutismDefined: the view that some actions are inherently right or wrong, regardless of context or consequences.Basic principle: an act is wrong if it is on this list of wrong actions: murder, rape, theft, texting during movies etcduring movies, etc.Examples: Deontology, human rights, professional codes of conduct religious codesprofessional codes of conduct, religious codes of conduct 4COMM 391, UBC MIS
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Pros and Cons of ConsequentialismAdvantagesFlexibleRelatively consistent with common moral intuitionsDisadvantagesWhich consequences are good/bad?Cfh?Consequences for whom?Inability to predict consequences Inability to agree on cause and effect5COMM 391, UBC MISPros and Cons of AbsolutismAdvantagesEasy to apply / less thinking requiredEasy to communicate DisadvantagesAbsolutist rules nearly always conflict with each other (e gfreedom of speech / right to fair trial)(e.g., freedom of speech / right to fair trial)Absolutist rules sometimes conflict with themselves (e.g., freedom of religion)Ignore context and cultural and historical differencesPeople disagree on the meaning of the underlying 6COMM 391, UBC MISvocabulary ExamplesTax heavily on small groups of highly rich people and bfit thh li tbenefit the whole society.Lying is wrong, regardless of any potential "good" that might come from lying.Facebook asked its members whether they are welling to let Facebook sell members’ information Facebook agreed toFacebook sell members’ information. Facebook agreed to provide financial compensation to members, and use the proceeds to improve its website and offer members more ftilitWhk d 68%fbthht thifunctionality. When asked 68% of members thought this was a good idea. After all, Facebook is a free service. Facebook has two options: 1) sell info. of members who agree, or 2) not ff7COMM 391, UBC MISsell any information. Use one of the ethical principles to argue:Moral valuesVideo: The real difference between liberals and conservatives - (start at ~4:40)http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/jonathan_haidt_on_the_moral_mind.htmlFive Pillars of Morality1) Harm/care2) Fairness/reciprocity3) Ingroup/loyalty4) Authority/respect8