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Phase 8 Appendix

Phase 8 Appendix - Phase 8 Appendix Appendix on Ethics...

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Phase 8 Appendix Appendix on Ethics Consequentialism Defined: “the view that normative properties d d l ” (SEP)* depend only on consequences” (SEP)* Basic principle: “an act is morally right if and l if th t t i i th d th t i if only if that act maximizes the good, that is, if and only if the total amount of good for all minus the total amount of bad for all is greater than this the total amount of bad for all is greater than this net amount for any incompatible act available to the agent on that occasion.”(SEP) Examples: Utilitarianism. 3 COMM 391, UBC MIS *SEP: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Absolutism Defined: the view that some actions are inherently right or wrong, regardless of context or consequences. Basic principle: an act is wrong if it is on this list of wrong actions: murder, rape, theft, texting during movies etc during movies, etc. Examples: Deontology, human rights, professional codes of conduct religious codes professional codes of conduct, religious codes of conduct 4 COMM 391, UBC MIS
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Pros and Cons of Consequentialism Advantages Flexible Relatively consistent with common moral intuitions Disadvantages Which consequences are good/bad? C f h ? Consequences for whom? Inability to predict consequences Inability to agree on cause and effect 5 COMM 391, UBC MIS Pros and Cons of Absolutism Advantages Easy to apply / less thinking required Easy to communicate Disadvantages Absolutist rules nearly always conflict with each other (e g freedom of speech / right to fair trial) (e.g., freedom of speech / right to fair trial) Absolutist rules sometimes conflict with themselves (e.g., freedom of religion) Ignore context and cultural and historical differences People disagree on the meaning of the underlying 6 COMM 391, UBC MIS vocabulary Examples Tax heavily on small groups of highly rich people and b fit th h l i t benefit the whole society. Lying is wrong, regardless of any potential "good" that might come from lying. Facebook asked its members whether they are welling to let Facebook sell members’ information Facebook agreed to Facebook sell members’ information. Facebook agreed to provide financial compensation to members, and use the proceeds to improve its website and offer members more f ti lit Wh k d 68% f b th ht thi functionality. When asked 68% of members thought this was a good idea. After all, Facebook is a free service. Facebook has two options: 1) sell info. of members who agree, or 2) not f f 7 COMM 391, UBC MIS sell any information. Use one of the ethical principles to argue: Moral values Video: The real difference between liberals and conservatives - (start at ~4:40) http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/jonathan_hai dt_on_the_moral_mind.html Five Pillars of Morality 1) Harm/care 2) Fairness/reciprocity 3) Ingroup/loyalty 4) Authority/respect 8