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exam 1 notes - Physiology 206 Notes Cell Physiology-Cell...

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Physiology 206 Notes Cell Physiology - Cell Physiology = General Physiology Atomic Molecular Subcellular Cellular Tissue Organ System * Main focus on Organ Systems and Individual. Individual Population -Homeostasis- keeping things the way that they used to be- stays the same. --implies that you must have recovery from pertervement. -Feedback- somewhere there is a sensor that detects change, and will initiate response exactly in opposite direction: called negative feedback. -Positive Feedback- sensor detects and makes response in same direction. Cells - 80% Water - 15% Protein - 2% Lipid - 3% Misc. Cell Membrane or Plasma Membrane - separates the intracellular fluid from the extracellular fluid - flat sheet made of 2-layers - have channels - fat soluble crosses easily - water soluble(if small) go through channel, if too big, can’t get through without special mechanisms. Intracellular Fluid Extracellular Fluid - lots of K+ (Potassium) -Low concentration of K+ -not so much Na (Sodium) -Na high concentration *- Cell Membranes do not allow ions to get in! Diffusion - Random movement molecules in a medium. - Heat makes molecule move - Water molecules attract one another. - Concentration determines Diffusion. *** Diffusion Rate= Concentration Difference x Area x Temperature *** Thickness x Molecular Size x Viscosity - Concentration of O2 is always higher on the outside. - Large water soluble membranes use special mechanisms to cross. Facilitated Diffusion- provision by the cell by the pathway
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Osmosis - there is almost no other method for getting water across cell - Water molecule is tiny; can diffuse through pores extremely fast. - Osmosis - diffusion of water Water always flows to the more concentrated content. Osmotic pressure depends on the total solute concentration. Unit of total = 1 osmol; 1 L= 1 OSM 1/1000 osmol; 1 L= 1 mOSM * Biology fluids around 300 mOSM 1 Mole of gas in a 1 L container, it exerts 22.4 ATM (Atmosphere) Osmotic pressure: For every 1 OSM difference, generate 22.4 ATM 1 mOSM generates 1/1000 x 22.4 ATM 1 atmosphere is 760 mM of Mercury; 22.4 ATM 15,000 mMHg 1 mOSM 15 mm Hg biologically significant pressure Average artery pressure = 100 mm Hg | Isotonic - the same | | Hypotonic - the one has lower osmolarity | Relative to osMolarity | Hypertonic - the one has more osmolarity | Active Transport - any system that will move a molecule uphill. --- Most Important in Physiological terms. Inside | Outside K hi | K low * only form biology finds useful energy is the destruction of ATP. Na l | Na High ATP ADP + Energy Molecular pump - constantly exchanging sodium and potassium go uphill in concentration gradian. Nervous System -- Cell physiology of two nerves: Two Main Types: 1.) Neuron- do things that we normally think of a “nervous” activity, business end 2.) Glia - do not transport information; provide environment for neurons.
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