exam 4 notes

exam 4 notes - Part 4 Physiology Notes Neural Communication...

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Part 4 Physiology Notes Neural Communication - Instantaneous cut on - Instantaneous cut off Endocrine System - cell secrete messengers into blood stream - Which then goes throughout the body to target - Doesn’t usually involve cells that are close to each Characteristics that differ from Neural - Takes much longer to get to target - When it gets there, it doesn’t get there abruptly - Takes awhile to reach full amplitude - When stop secreting; it lasts in blood stream for awhile - The message is diffused- some hormone acts on many different cells Hormones - messenger chemicals secreted by endocrine system; which is secreted straight into bloodstream therefore, the Endocrine Glands are also called “ductless glands” - there are instances when the Neural System releases into bloodstream instead of target cells, and they are known as Neuroendocrine and the hormones that release are called Neurohormones. Basic Principles Endocrine Physiology Topics: 1.) what controls secretion 2.) what effects they have - They are practically important in things that have to be maintained, over long periods of time. this is important because in Neural System receptors fatigues or adapts, so they are not good choices for maintaining things Things that are under endocrine control- (total body water; blood/glucose level) - Things that make up endocrine system consists of glands that are not connected or anatomically disconnected, but work as a group because they are held together by circulation. there are hormones that are released, just to control other secretion of other hormones, are called Tropic Hormones
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Hormones that mainly on things outside endocrine system, called Nontrophic Hormone some endocrine glands, that have more than one cell in them, so they secrete more than one type of hormone. Very common for a hormone to have effect on more than one type of cell Hormone Classes : - Determined by Chemical Structure 1.) Peptides 2.) Steroids 3.) Amines Useful grouping because, each class have similarities in how: a.) they are synthesized b.) what its stored in, if it is c.) how they get secreted d.) how they are transported e.) what it does when it gets there Peptide Hormones - basically small proteins - synthesized for export from cell - synthesis happens on ribosomes, as in active precursors - Get transported through cell in ER - When arrive at Golgi , they get enclosed in membrane, and get stored - When it is stimulated, the packages get released (somewhere between last one and here, get turned into hormones) - All water soluble- they dissolve in plasma with no trouble, and that’s how they travel in blood they do not get into cells because large water soluble - When they get to target cell, there have to be structures on the external surface of the target cells, called receptors , that the hormone can interact with it, and cause cell to do its trick. any cell that doesn’t have receptor
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exam 4 notes - Part 4 Physiology Notes Neural Communication...

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