Ch 16 - Design& Data Design& Data Collection for...

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Unformatted text preview: Design & Data Design & Data Collection for Qualitative Research Some Key Characteristics of Some Key Characteristics of Qualitative Research Meaning­driven, & sensitive to the social construction of meaning Specific to particular contexts and/or groups of people Reliant on the researcher’s direct observation and participation Relatively subjective Key Characteristics, cont. Key Characteristics, cont. Credibility is assessed by: The researcher’s accountability to the process, and to his/her own biases Thick description, quotes, and examples To what extent the research rings true to experts Most Common Qualitative Methods Most Common Qualitative Methods Participant observation (ethnography) Interviews & focus groups Collection of narratives Conversation analysis Textual analysis Planning a Qualitative Study Planning a Qualitative Study 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identify the general topic, context, or group of people to investigate Consult the research literature Identify the research objective(s) Determine the most appropriate method(s)/approaches, but be flexible Obtain access/consent Sampling – General Types Sampling – General Types Purposive sampling Network sampling Snowball sampling Saturation Maximum variation Sampling – Other Considerations Sampling – Other Considerations Settings Time Persons Activities Events Routine Special Untoward/unexpected What Constitutes Data? What Constitutes Data? Observations/field notes Interview tapes/transcripts Visual documents/artifacts Qualitative Research Skills Qualitative Research Skills Reflexivity – What is your impact on the scene? Theoretical sensitivity – knowledge of phenomena being studied through theory (and personal experience), combined with ability to withhold assumptions Bracketing/invoking the époché – identifying prior assumptions, biases, and standpoints Interviewing ­ goals Interviewing To learn about events that cannot be observed directly To understand participants’ points of view of what things mean to them To observe their language and communication style Qualitative Interviewing ­ Qualitative Interviewing ­ characteristics May be formal or informal Is usually “in the field” Is usually face­to­face Is in­depth Is semi­structured Interviewing Step­by­Step Interviewing Step­by­Step 1. 2. 3. 4. Assess what you already know, and what you still need to know. Decide what you should ask, and of whom. Contact and invite potential interviewees. Prepare yourself for the interview. Interviewing Step­by­Step Interviewing Step­by­Step 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Set the stage for the interview. Conduct the interview. Thank & debrief the interviewee. Take notes on observations, reflections, feelings, etc. Transcribe the interview. Analyze the interviews. The Interview Guide The Interview Guide Comfortable to challenging “Grand­tour” to “mini­tour” Concrete to abstract Present to past to future Main questions & probes/follow­ups to use if necessary Focus Groups Focus Groups Open­ended, facilitator­led discussion with group of 5­10 people Allows for participants to react to and build on each other’s ideas May be homogenous or heterogeneous Collecting Stories/Narratives Collecting Stories/Narratives Interviews Written questionnaires Critical incidents Everyday conversation Printed documents Ethnography/Participant­ Ethnography/Participant­ Observation Allows for observation of communication as it occurs in context Ethnographers immerse themselves in the context under investigation for long periods of time Ethnography/Participant­ Ethnography/Participant­ Observation Continuum of observation & participation in the setting Complete participant Participant­as­observer Observer­as­participant Complete observer Gaining Access Gaining Access Public settings Gatekeepers Private settings Trust & rapport Key informants Commitment acts Collecting Data Collecting Data Purposeful observation Openmindedness – asking questions without jumping to conclusions Field notes Describing without interpreting Tape recording Transcribing Autoethnography Autoethnography is an autobiographical approach to investigating a phenomenon Ethnography of Ethnography of Communication Focuses on how symbolic practices are expressed in a particular social structure Assumes that each speech community has a distinctive set of communication rules, rituals, and meanings ...
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