Study Guide 4

Study Guide 4 - Module 34: Introduction to Motivation What...

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Module 34: Introduction to Motivation What are “instincts?” Do humans have them? - Instinct: a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is learned - Human behavior exhibits certain innate tendencies, including simple fixed patterns - Most psychologists view human behavior as directed by physiological needs and by psychological wants Describe drive-reduction theory. - The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need Apply Maslow’s Hierarchy of Motives to yourself. At which levels are you most motivated? - Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active - Physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self- actualization needs (base-point) Module 36: Sexual Motivation Describe the methodology used by Kinsey and by Masters & Johnson. What did they discover? Do you think their results were valid? - Nonrandom sample - Most of the men and nearly half of the women researched reported having had premarital sexual intercourse; that most women and virtually all men reported having masturbated; and that women who reported masturbating to orgasm before marriage seldom had difficulties experiencing orgasm after marriage How much effect do hormones like testosterone and estrogen have on sexual behavior? - Sex hormones have two effects: they direct the physical development of male and female sex characteristics, and they activate sexual behavior - In women, on days around ovulation, intercourse is more frequent - In women, if testosterone level drops, sexual behavior may drop - In men, normal fluctuations in testosterone levels from man to man and hour to hour, have little effect on sexual drive - Normal short-term hormonal changes have little effect on men’s and women’s desire, large hormonal shifts over the life span have a greater effect What are the adverse effects of sexually explicit material? - Research indicates sexually explicit material can have adverse effects - Depictions of women being sexually coerced tend to increase viewer’s acceptance of the false idea that women enjoy being rape and tend to increase male viewers’ willingness to hurt women - Images of sexually attractive women and men may also lead people to devalue their own partners and relationships - Reading or watching erotica may create expectations that few men and women can fulfill
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According to the text, our most significant sex organ is our _______. - The brain is our most significant sex organ How would you explain cultural differences in rates of sexual behavior among young people? - Teen intercourse rates are higher in Western Europe but much lower in Arab and Asian
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Study Guide 4 - Module 34: Introduction to Motivation What...

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