Exam1review - Exam#1 Review Sheet Psychology 240 Lecture 1...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Exam #1 Review Sheet Psychology 240 Lecture 1: History & methodology : oldest approach; look inside your own mind and make observations, wundt and tichener; problems: cant verify, not public end product, not process; no one else can see; ex) don’t know the processes we used when the sentences flashed in front of us : emphasizes stimuli, responses, reinforcement, rewards. Reaction to introspectionism; focus on outside. Ex) Pavlov (classical conditioning); associations created predicted scientifically; BF Skinner; psych is science of behavior ignore the mind; forget the black box, im gonna focus on what everyone can see—focus on relationship between stimuli and responses; behaviorists ignore the mind; Watson’s extreme view: all thought is things said to yourself problems: cannot account for diversity in human behavior ex) language; limiting science to observable is a bad idea—many constructs cannot be directly observed but have theoretical value cognitivism view of mind : infer what’s going on inside the box based on hypothesis about information processing that might be occurring; we can allow ourselves to think about properties inside the box which let us predict; maybe there is a memory system… Computational view of the mind : mainstream underlying assumption: mind is somehow like a computer program That is, information enters our mind via input devices (namely our sensory organs), is stored in memory devices that maintain that information, and is processed using cognitive processes that work somewhat like computer programs. Ex) might write a comp program to take a list of names of people and sort them alphabetically—needs to somehow store names in a list and figure out where they are placed—maybe the human mind can be thought of in information processing terms . Dependent variables : what you measure/ analyze; observable result of experiment ex) reaction time, accuracy, brain activity Independent variables : what you manipulate ex) number of items to be memorized, amount of alcohol ingested, passage of time Sometimes you don't manipulate the independent variable itself, but you use a naturally occurring manipulation. For example, if you’re interested in gender differences in memory then you might perform your memory test on both men and women and then compare memory performance of the men with that of the women. Main effects and interactions : independent variable (on the x axis) definitely influenced the dependent variable (on the y axis). This is known as a main effect . A main effect refers to a situation in changes in the independent variable lead to changes in the dependent variable. For each independent variable, does it have a main effect? Interaction : Two or more independent variables interact when the effect of one independent variable is different depending on the level of the other independent variable; effect one independent variable has depends on value of the other
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 01/05/2011 for the course PSYCH 240 taught by Professor Gehring during the Fall '08 term at University of Michigan.

Page1 / 15

Exam1review - Exam#1 Review Sheet Psychology 240 Lecture 1...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online