353exam1studyguide - PSYCHOLOGY 353, Social Development

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PSYCHOLOGY 353, Social Development READING AND STUDY GUIDE—MID-TERM For the midterm exam, you will be responsible for all material covered in the first half of the course, including chapters in the texts, lecture content, extra articles provided on C-tools, and videos shown in class. This reading and study guide should help guide both your reading and your preparation for the midterm exam. The exam will consist of 30-40 multiple choice and matching questions. Research Methodology Scientific method and its four steps o Scientific method: value about the pursuit of knowledge, which emphasizes the importance of investigator objectivity in deciding the merits of theorizing. Our own biases cannot come into our science— must set up objective experiments o Theory: what do you think is going on? Needs to be testable; we are not philosophy, we are science; biopsych, clinical psych, etc use different methods o Questions/hypotheses: what are the basic questions of the theory? What is testable? Theory drives the whole process o Methods: what manipulations or questions can we ask—they will help us test our question. How are we going to measure this question? o Analyses: data gathered and summarized (qualitative or quantitative) —make sure reliable, valid; look for diffs or predict what will happen with the data o Integration: dud we find answer to our questions? Does it fit with previous ideas? Do we have new findings? Long-term findings. o Theory hypothesis method integrate positive outcomes Four goals of data collection techniques: objectivity, reliability, validity, and  external validity o Reliable: yields consistent results, both over time and across observers o Valid: measures what it is supposed to measure: there are multiple tests of validity—one important one is face validity—do the questions measure the phenomena? - 1 -
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PSYCHOLOGY 353, Social Development Differences between the three types of self-report methodology (interviews,  questionnaires, clinical method)—advantages and disadvantages of each type— recognize in an example of each type o Structured interview/questionnaire: treats each participant equally for comparison purposes—use to collect large amount of data quickly; cons : cant be used with very young children (difficulty understanding); pros : generate large amount of data in short time frame (can analyze it very quickly) o Clinical method: an interview where a participant’s response to each successive question determines what the examiner will ask next; cons : makes it difficult to compare participants to each other, allows for examiner subjectivity; pros : yields large amounts of information in a short period of time; yields rich and more specific info Differences between the four types of observational methodology (naturalistic,  laboratory/structured, case study, and ethnography)—advantages and  disadvantages of each type—recognize in an example of each type
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353exam1studyguide - PSYCHOLOGY 353, Social Development

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