PSYCHOLOGY+353.Win10.StudyGuide - PSYCHOLOGY353,Winter2010

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 PSYCHOLOGY 353, Winter 2010 Reading and Study Guide for Final Exam Sex Role Development and Sexual Socialization – Chapter 8 early stages in development of conceptions about gender—early associations,  labeling, preferences, knowledge of associations and stereotypes, gender  intensification at birth: names based on gender, color based on gender, nicknames based on gender gender appropriate clothing, toys, and hairstyles first step is to discriminate males from females and place oneself in one of those children normally begin to understand that sex is an unchanging attribute between the ages of 5 & 7 toddlers begin to acquire gender-role stereotypes at about the same time they become aware of their basic identities as boys or girls; playing with appropriate toys gender intensification : a magnification of sex differences that is associated with increased pressure to conform to gender roles as one reaches puberty; boys begin to see themselves as more masculine, girls emphasize their feminine side know terms: gender role stereotype, expressive role, instrumental role,  androgynous, gender typing gender role standard : a value, motive, or class of behavior that is considered more appropriate for members of one sex than the other; describes how males and females are expected to behave, and reflect the stereotypes by which we categorize and respond to members of each sex gender role stereotype : ideas about what males and females are supposed to be like expressive role : girls have typically been encouraged to assume an expressive role that involves being kind, nurturing, cooperative, and sensitive to the needs of others. instrumental role : boys encouraged to adopt instrumental role, for as a traditional husband and father, a male would face the tasks of providing for the family and protecting it from harm androgynous : a gender-role orientation in which the individual has incorporated a large number of both masculine and feminine attributes into his or her personality gender typing : the process by which children acquire not only a gender identity but also the motives, values, and behaviors considered appropriate in their culture for members of their biological sex Kohlberg's stages of gender role development Helps to explain why boys and girls adopt traditional gender roles even when their parents may not want them to
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Major themes: gender role development depends on cognitive development; children actively socialize themselves -not merely passive pawns of social influence Three stages 1. Basic Gender Identity: By age 3, children have labeled themselves as boys or girls 2. Gender Stability: Somewhat later, gender is perceived as stable  over time . Boys invariably become men and girls grow up to be women 3. Gender Consistency:  the gender concept is complete when the child realizes that one’s sex is also
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This note was uploaded on 01/05/2011 for the course PSYCH 353 taught by Professor Gaer during the Winter '08 term at University of Michigan.

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PSYCHOLOGY+353.Win10.StudyGuide - PSYCHOLOGY353,Winter2010

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