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Unformatted text preview: Federic 0% in collaboration with Jérome indé I Winning the Fight Against Drugs: Education, Development and Purpose A Rapidly Expanding Market While many economists are rejoicing at the sustained growth of the world economy, there is one market in particular that is undergoing uninterrupted expansion throughout the world: the drug market, the cause of the most radical marginalization of human beings, since drugs abolish all notions of self or of other human beings.1 According to the United Nations, profits derived from drug trafficking amount to $400 billion annually, that is to say 8% of world trade or, at a rough estimate, the equivalent of international trade in textiles in 1994,2 or 1% of world GNP, or the GNP of the whole of Africa.3 The produc- tion and consumption of drugs are rising constantly. According to the 1996 report of the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), ’in spite of increased repression, production of and trafficking in drugs, together with drug addic- tion, have now reached hitherto preserved regions of the world.’ As empha- sized by an expert, ’Narco-states and narco-democracies, narco-terrorism and narco-guerrilla activities, narco-tourism and narco-dollars, are all signs that drugs have penetrated every sphere of political, economic and social life. The expansion of drug trafficking now goes hand in hand with the globalization of the economy and free market democracy.’4 The highly efficient organization of drug trafficking, through a worldwide network based on extremely flexible and constantly changing units, has rendered any control of narcotics particularly difficult.5 Production as such is still highly concentrated, as 90% of the illicit production of narcotics derived from opium worldwide originates from two major areas: the ’Golden Crescent’ (Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan) and the ’Golden Triangle’ (Laos, Burma and Thailand) and 98% of world supplies of cocaine come from the Andean countries (Peru, Colombia and Bolivia).6 But new connections have developed, production and trafficking areas have expanded and new synthetic drugs have appeared on the market. Drug traf- ficking is the hidden face of globalization. It also happens to be one of its main beneficiaries, owing to increasingly porous national frontiers, the volatile From THE WORLD AHEAD: OUR FUTURE IN THE MAKING by Federico Mayor, and Jerome Binde, pp. 137—151. Copyright © 2001 by UNESCO Courier. Reprinted by permission. 186 YES / Mayor and Bindé 187 nature of financial operations and the contagion of lifestyles, and even what might be called 'death styles.’ INTERPOL estimates that only 5% to 15% of banned drugs are actually seized, which means that at least 85% of narcotics escape regression and circulate freely, in a clandestine market controlled by criminals. ’ According to OECD estimations, $85 billion derived from profits from such trafficking are laundered every year on the financial markets—that sum is greater than the GNP of three-quarters of the 207 economies in the world, according to a group of G7 experts.8 The wealth accumulated by drug traffick- ers over the last 10 to 15 years could amount to as much as ’several trillion dol- lars.’9 The drugs trade first and foremost ’benefits’ the industrialized countries, if we may venture to sa so: 90% of these sums is thought to be reinvested in the Western countries.1 Many experts are increasingly concerned at the grow- ing expansion of ’grey areas’ within the world economy, which enable major organized crime networks to penetrate the very heart of some strategic spheres of the international economy such as the major world financial exchanges.11 As pointed out by an expert, ’in every country, the banking system is actively involved in recycling drugs revenue, particularly through subsidiaries and cor- respondents established in the worldwide constellation of tax havens,’ which means, sometimes, that ’laundered .money from drugs enables debt instalments to be paid or funds structural adjustment plans.’12 The growing sophistication of financial operations, the globalization of the banking system, which is no longer hampered by frontiers and is able to operate round the clock, and the rapid emergence of unrecorded ‘cyber—payments’ require increased vigilance on the part of regulatory bodies and the extension of their partnership to the whole range of world financial institutions. The USA, for its part, recently advocated regulation of the non-banking financial sector, ranging from cur- . rency exchange and brokerage houses to casinos, as well as express delivery services, insurance firms and the precious-metal trade.13 Multinational corpo- rations and transnational finance companies should abide by codes of conduct in order to prevent the laundering of money derived from crime, whether it comes from drug trafficking, arms dealing or any form of criminal trade or mafia activity (embezzlement of public funds, racketeering, prostitution, illicit gambling, etc.). The influence, whether overt or covert, of major criminal organizations, seemingly on the increase in many countries in both North and South, means that serious dangers are threatening economic ethics and the rule of law. According to the UNDP, expenditure on consumption of narcotics in the USA alone exceeds the accumulated GDP of more than eighty developing countries. Furthermore, organized crime has considerably extended its geographical areas of influence thanks to globalization and the development of drug trafficking, which often occurs in symbiosis with other criminal activities (arms trafficking, prostitution and the slave trade, the embezzlement of public funds, illegal gambling and penetration of the casino network by the mafia, etc.). The gigan- tic scale of illicit profits from drugs, together with the 'penetration’ of entire sectors of the legal economy now controlled through money-laundering, could ultimately lead, through the dynamics of accumulation and concentration 73W 188 ISSUE 10 / Can the Global Community "Win" the Drug War? observed during the last two decades, to an irreversible situation whereby no state or organized force would be in a position to react as, through the launder- ing process, a substantial part of the economy and of pressure groups, in both North and South, would fall under the influence of drug trafficking. Keeping quiet in this matter amounts to observing the very principle that underlies the power of criminal organizations, namely the law of silence. In our opinion, drug trafficking and consumption constitute one of the most serious threats to our planet, with disastrous consequences for health, development and society. We are all the more sensitive to this problem as we know all too well what effects drug addiction has on the brain’s receptors and hOW irreversible lesions are caused above a certain level of consumption.14 To these evils are added the effects of the spread of AIDS among drug addicts who absorb drugs intravenously. Young people, education and human values are affected first but drug addiction makes life unbearable for the whole family of the addict and, sooner or later, it is democracy itself that is threatened and, with it, peace. As pointed out by a specialist in this field, ’there is Virtually no local conflict today that is not linked to a greater or lesser extent to drug traf- ficking.’15 Drugs have become a form of violence not only towards the individ— ual but also towards the whole of society. . . . Eliminate Supply or Dry up Demand? If effective action is to be taken against drugs, we must first of all open our eyes wider and open those of others. We need to discuss the problem with greater scientific rigour and critical awareness within the institutions that disseminate knowledge, namely schools, universities and all the channels of mass commu— nication. Our task must be to show both clearly and unceasingly the real dam- age caused by the various drugs, the moral and physical servitude and the destruction of mind and body, attitudes and values, of Which they are the cause. We must shed light on the harm caused to both society—starting with the immense suffering inflicted on the addict’s family—and the individual. We must cease to portray drugs as malevolent yet attractive, and thus avoid demon- izing them, as is too often the case, unaware that, in so doing, we tum them into a symbol of the urge to transgress social rules. If we cry ’Wolfl’ too often, we are more likely to push young people towards drugs than to put them off. A sur- vey recently conducted by a French opinion poll agency showed that for 52% and 44% respectively of drug—takers, pleasure and curiosity were the prime motive;16 What we need to do is to demystify drugs by explaining to children that they are first and foremost a denial of existence, as stressed by Rita Levi— Montalcini, Nobel prizewinner in medicine, in her fine essay dedicated to young people, aptly entitled ’Your future.’ Drugs will stop attracting adolescents once they have understood that they constitute, above all, a ‘lessening of the power to act,’ as Spinoza might have put it, when he defined sadness in such terms in his work Ethics. Some people believe that drugs should no longer be banned. According to these liberal~minded opponents of prohibition, it is through re-‘establishing control of narcotics by the legal economy that we can best fight the plagues YES / Mayor and Bindé 189 which are the result of the illegal nature of the market, namely the enrichment of dealers and middlemen (which stimulates expansion of this trade), crime, violence, the marginalization of addicts, arms trafficking, terrorism and the suspicion of corruption that in many countries weighs on wide areas of public and political life. Nevertheless, we are among those who believe that we must firmly oppose the legalization of the non—therapeutic use of drugs. In that regard, the report of the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) for 1997 deplored the existence of ’an overall climate of acceptance that is favourable to or at least tolerant of drug abuse.’17 We can no more play around with narcotics than we can with weapons or medicinal drugs. The risk of a real surge in consumption is far too great. That is Why drugs cannot be left to market forces, whether legal or illegal. In this domain, we cannot afford to be sorcerers' apprentices. Conversely, the idea that it is possible to eliminate the production and con- sumption of drugs, however commendable it may be, strikes us as being scarcely credible. Many corrrmentators are now advocating the replacement of prohibi- tion policies by measures to reduce the harmful effects of drugs, in the belief that ’drugs are here to stay and we have no choice but to learn to live with them so that they cause the least possible ham/18 The policy of all-round repression can fail because, by making drugs scarcer, it merely makes drug trafficking more lucrative for new networks that have replaced earlier ones. While we thought that we were fighting organized crime, we were actually strengthening its finan- cial power and capacity to corrupt, and dragging down large sections of society into delinquency. ' A recent report states that ’Despite regional successes supply suppression is not a prescription for solving the world’s illicit-drug problem. It is a prescription for funding drug mafias, peasant growers, petty traffickers and smugglers!” There is naturally a price to pay for such a policy: several tens of billions of dollars are spent every year on repression, with results that, to put it mildly, are hardly convincing: delinquency in a growing part of society (the inner cities, ghettos, minorities, the younger generation, the interaction between consumption and ’petty trafficking,’ etc.), and the corresponding excessive grth of the repressive and penitentiary system, which ultimately penalizes addicts rather than traffick- ers. Everything, therefore, needs to be changed. On the one hand, an efficient judicial and penitentiary system must be set up to deal with drug dealers. On the other hand, preventive and curative measures should be introduced on a large scale. We must stress that addicts need to be given treatment—and adequate funds should be allocated for that purpose—by bringing into play all the means required, whether they be medical, scientific or of another nature. We must therefore learn how to deal with the problems of drug addiction in our societies while reducing this phenomenon to a minimum and avoiding the criminalization of addicts. In terms of public health alone, realistic public policies ’for reducing the harmful effects’ are required to respond to the fact that the total absence of control over the drugs market is a powerful vector for the development of AIDS'and other epidemics: the distribution of free syringes helped in several countries to lower the contamination of drug addicts by HIV. Moreover, we believe the time has Come to contemplate an international agreement whereby it would be possible, under medical supervision, to distribute .. M...) 190 ISSUE 10 / Can the Global Community "Win" the Drug War? a limited quantity of drugs to addicts who are not able to break out of addic- tion.20 Drug addicts should be treated as patients rather than delinquents. As such, patients have a right to benefit from medical supervision and social assis tance in much the same way as any human being suffering from a curable pathology. What is more, such a measure could reduce violence and delin~ quency and contribute to dismantling the illegal drugs market and, therefore, the major source of profits for organized crime. The difficulty underlying such a policy can be summarized as follows: any agreement would have to be intema» tional, as policies for fighting against drugs can no longer be conceived in purely national terms. Harmonizing the policies of various states would be the key to effectiveness in this field where interdependence is particularly marked.21 Clearly, such a policy will have to be accompanied by an in—depth survey on the specific harmfulness of drugs by the scientific and medical community, in close cooperation with the relevant national and international authorities. Such concertation might, as suggested by a French consultative body, make it possible to establish regulations for each substance, ’taking account of its toxicity, the risks of dependence relating to its consumption, the danger of desocialization it might entail and the risks to which its consumption might expose other people/2'2 Prevention by educating and informing the public would also be indispens~ able for this project. We need the help of the media, as well as municipal and local authorities, to foster appropriate awareness, commitment and participation and to ensure that drug addiction does not become commonplace, the lame excuse of a society that tolerates the degeneration and distress of those who symbolize its future, namely, its younger generations. The Youth Charter for a Twenty-first Century Free from Drugs (1997), which received the support of UNESCO and the United Nations Programme for International Narcotics Control (UNPINC), rightly states that ’the first experiences with drugs are often motivated by curiosity, idleness, lack of self—confidence, indifference and violence in our immediate sur- roundings, but also by the difficulties and trials of everyday life!” Many experts and institutions nevertheless continue to give priority to reducing the supply of drugs. One of the solutions for reducing the production and therefore the supply of drugs would be to develop sufficiently lucrative alternative crops and new markets for the peasant farmers whose livelihood depends on poppy and coca cultivation. To do that, the cooperation of the peas- ant farmers concerned is all the more important in the choice of new crops as the cultivation of toxic plants is often related to cultural traditions. They need to be made aware of the dangers of drugs for their health and for the life of their community, as well as for the well—being of the whole of humanity. Unfortu- nately, policies for the eradication of plantations and help for the substitufion of illegal crops have often failed and have had adverse effects through ignorance of the cultural factors of development, the local social environment, the require- ments of sustainable development, as well as through anthropocentric naivety. In such circumstances, the establishment of a scheme for subsidies and guaranteed prices for new crops bringing into play national and intemational resources would seem indispensable. In this type of situation, the international community, by lending its financial support, could invest in the future with success, benefit and a sense of long-term vision. YES / Mayor and Bindé 191 In addition to these difficulties, replacing drugs with alternative crops, in the absence of accompanying structural measures and international support, would appear virtually condemned to failure for four main reasons. No govem— ment would seem ready to pay the very high price of replacing crops Worldwide, if the operation had to be subsidized. No agricultural production, on the basis of market prices, would be competitive with the price of base plants. Further- more, the economy of many producing countries, which are often very poor, is now increasingly based on drugs. It is no secret, as illustrated by various reports produced by the United Nations, that the drug industry accounts for as much as 20% of GNP for some countries.24 Worse still, once crops have actually been eradicated in a particular country, the outcome is disappointing and deceptive as production moves elsewhere, often to a neighbouring country.25 A global threat requires a global solution. A large—scale threat calls for large- scale solutions. Many countries are members of major international alliances that guarantee their borders and security. If we wish to mark the advent of the new century by making a fresh start, we must then have comparable alliances at our disposal for combating drugs, as would be required for combating global catastrophes of all kinds. The drugs problem should not be confined to pro- tracted, trivial discussions on the respective responsibility of the producer and consumer countries: such a dispute is all the more futile as the frontier between the former and the latter has become increasingly blurred since the explosion of consumption in the South. Let us endeavour instead to fight the causes of sup- ply and demand by offering acceptable living conditions and a better future to the peasant farmers attracted by illicit but more profitable crops, to the middle- men who, in many underprivileged countries or communities, often have no alternative income and to the consumers who, through lack of education and information, are ignorant of the dangers of drugs or who feel excluded from a society in which they are not able to fashion their own lives. Let us give hope and a future to them all. The terrible effects of drug addiction on human dignity constitute a powerful illustration of the importance of preventive action, which involves educating young people as early as possible. Let us recall that international action against drug trafficking began some 80 years ago when the opium trade came under international jurisdiction. Since then, the multilateral system has devised many conventions and plans of action for combating this traffic which, at the highest levels of responsibility, may be considered to be a crime against humanity. In fact, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the 19903 as the ’United Nations Decade against Drugs.’ The most efficient means of fighting against drug trafficking is, as stated by the Italian judge, Giovanni Falcone, shortly before he was assassinated by the Mafia, ’the destruction of the financial power of organized crime, which would presuppose powerful international collaboration.’26 This alone can help to prevent the emergence of the ’chain of connivance’ composed of obscure acts of corruption and unavowed links described by the great Sicilian writer, Leonardo Sciascia, in his novel The Context, published in 1971. It is that chain of connivance that under- mines democratic institutions and threatens their legitimate representatives?7 Judge Falcone added that. it was necessary, with that aim in mind, to encourage and coordinate ’efforts aimed at identifying and confiscating wealth 3 l d i 72 [SSW 192 ISSUE 10 / Can the Global Community "Win" the Drug War? of illegal origin,’ which requires ’adapting international laws and achieving con- stant international collaboration.’ Giovanni Falcone advocated ’first and fore- most, the elimination of tax havens which, up to now, have countered the most serious attempts of various countries to identify financial flows originating from illegal trafficking.’ According to Judge Falcone, ’this is a fight that concerns all members of the international community because its outcome will determine whether organized crime is destroyed or at least limited in such a way as to be 1' no longer a serious peril for society.’ The advice and sacrifice of Judge Falcone would not seem to have been totally pointless: since then, the Italian magis— tracy has intensified the seizure of assets of illegal origin, while the profits of the four major Italian criminal organizations (estimated by the Italian Anti—Mafia lnvestigatory Department at 10 trillion lire, or 30% of a turnover estimated at 30 trillion in 1994), seem to have shrunk massively in the same year.28 Furthermore, the production of narcotics is by no means limited to sub- stances of natural origin. In its 1996 and 1997 reports, the INCB highlighted the preoccupying expansion throughout the world of synthetic drugs, particu- larly amphetamines or by—products, such as ecstasy, produced in clandestine laboratories. They supply a very lucrative illicit market for dealers and meet with alarming success among young people. The US Department of State believes that amphetamines, on account of their simple manufacturing process and the sudden growth in demand, are about to become ’the drug-control nightmare of the next century.’29 In the face of this growing threat, which, paradoxically, has benefited from progress achieved in the field of pharmaceutical research, new measures for control, information, research and education are required, particularly for the benefit of young people. There is therefore no miracle solution to the drugs problem. As long as there is demand, there will be supply. As noted by the UNDP in a lucid report, the real solution requires tackling the causes of drug addiction and eliminatng the poverty that leads farmers to become involved in producing narcotics.3 We are particularly concerned with the consequences of drug consump- tion on the fate of street children who, today, number more than 100 million and who are fighting every day to survive in conditions of total deprivation. These children are those who are most threatened by violence, sexual and economic exploitation, AIDS, hunger, solitude and the scourges of exclusion, illiteracy and drugs. They are the ’golden fish’ referred to by the French novelist Le Clézio which the ill-intentioned fishermen in search of innocent prey attempt to catch in their'nets. Everything must be done to ensure that these children are fully integrated into society, that they learn to live in it, that they have access to education and that they are no longer manipulated by criminals who make them serve their evil purposes. The latter deserve to be punished all the more severely as by destroying innocence, they attempt to eradicate faith and confidence in the future. The fight against drug addiction—like that against AIDS or against the collective shame represented by street children and children who are sexually or professionally exploited—will not be truly effective unless it is based on a major alliance between all countries, translated practically into a political will YES / Mayor and Bindé 1-93 not to abandon the cause, just as we defend our country when national sover- eignty is in jeopardy. In fact, in all the cases we have just referred to, it is national dignity that is threatened, which cannot be defended simply through charity or by organizing tombolas and galas. The best way of celebrating human rights, the fiftieth anniversary of the declaration of which we cele- brated in 1998, would be an intematjonally reached decision aimed at ensur- ing its effective exercise by all human beings. The rest is no more than ceremony and empty rhetoric. The United Nations Intemafional Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) should be one of the most powerful in the entire United Nations system, in terms both of its authority and of its resources. This should also be the case, in a different field, for the United Nations of Environment Pro- gramme (UNEP). The limited means available to these programmes reflect a lack of political will and of public awareness as to what is required for combat- ing drugs or preserving the global environment. We are, to varying degrees, all responsible for this twofold deficiency. To fight against drug-related problems, the causes of marginalization and exclusion have to be tackled by investing in the welfare of young people, partic- ularly through sports and training activities. It is UNESCO’s responsibility to fight against the-demand for drugs through education, and more especially pre- ventive education. While education may be the main victim of drugs, it is also its best antidote. In fact, it is thanks to education that young people can become aware of the real dangers of narcotics, that they can escape ’the blues’ and find their true path in society, and that they can acquire the knowledge and ethical attitudes that will enable them to assert their own personality and take their destiny in hand. Instead of paying the price for war and over-investing in armed defence, let us invest in the peaceful defence of individuals and young people, in cultural security and in genuine spiritual freedom which access to the world of knowledge and freedom from any servitude, can provide. Once education is widely perceived as having the objective of ’ensuring that people have control over their lives,’ then it is through education that any form of dependency can be combated, such as dependency on alcohol, tobacco, drugs and sects, etc. Through education we can learn to be free and responsible. More than ever before, the vital issue is the political will of governments to agree on effective solutions and on implementing them. More than ever, UNESCO has a major role to play in the context of its fields of competence: education and information against drug abuse, communication activities among the populations, and the contribution of the social sciences and scien- tific research in order to fine tune action plans and national and international strategies, and to assess the specific harmfulness of drugs, which are a subject of debate.31 To be perfectly frank, however, education and information alone cannot, even in the long term, be the only solutions in this field, nor can development if it is reduced to mere economic prosperity. Without referring to the great minds who succumbed to ’artificial paradises,’ it is striking to observe the number of people with a high level of education and a comfortable income, who consume drugs in a number of countn'es. Psychological malaise as reflected by drug addic- tion cannot be cured merely by knowledge as, to paraphrase Henri Michaux, mum. 194 ISSUE 10 / Can the Global Community "Win" the Drug War? the poet, knowledge itself may lead to an abyss. If the twenty—first century is to win the battle against drug addiction (which some experts in science fiction doubt, imagining, on the contrary, the expansion of a form of ’addiction to soft drugs’ controlled by the neurosciences and pharmacology), it will have to win the battle against nihilism, consumerism, and the fruitless pursuit of intoxication and ecstasy. We shall have to bring about a ’global mobilization’ of governments, par— liaments, the media, industry and society as a whole against drugs and addiction. The next century will have to give a new meaning to life. Education, economic development and material well-being will probably not suffice to eliminate drugs even if they are the major instruments of prevention. To think so would be to imagine that human beings can be prevented from walk- ing along the edge of precipices, from seeking to experience ecstasy or trance or, quite simply, from wanting to poison themselves. What therefore has to be done is to construct humanity’s defences in people’s minds, all the more so as drugs tempt the minds as much as they do the body. Thus new forms of wisdom and ethics will have to develop. What must also be done is to build humanity’s defences by investing in human dignity, by reducing dire poverty, racism and exclusion. Fighting against drugs, the source of destruction, suffean and war, also means responding to the aims of the founders of UNESCO. It simply means building peace and development on the basis of the intellectual and moral solidarity of humanity. fighting against drugs, in a united effort, with human and financial means that cor- respond to the scale of the plague, means protecting young people, our children and our future. It also means speeding up the transition from a culture of violence, war and indignity to a culture of peace, non—violence and dignity for all. Pointers and Recommendations 0 Reduce the demand for drugs in consumer countries, particularly through education, prevention and treatment. . - Educate and inform children and young people about the risks of drug consumption. 0 Mobilize the international community against the main causes of drug consumption which are marginalization and poverty, in both urban and rural environments. 0 Develop specific machinery, on international, regional and national scales, for fighting against corruption, the laundering of money from drugs and organized crime. Encourage ratification and implementation 'of international treaties related to narcotics control and the conclusion of international agreements aimed at destroying the financial power of organized crime. - Help drug addicts to overcome their dependency and to adopt a sustain- able lifestyle without drug consumption, through appropriate educa— tional, rehabilitation and vocational training programmes. ¢ Reduce the perverse effects of drug trafficking and consumption (financial development of organized crime, criminalization, delinquency and social pathologies) by studying the feasibility, on an international scale, of an agreement that, under medical supervision, would allow addicts who are in need and incapable of giving up their habit a limited supply of drugs. YES / Mayor and Bindé 195 0 Give serious consideration to the adoption of ’reduction of the harmful effects’ policies implemented in various countries under the terms of a policy and a world programme for narcotics control. 0 Encourage scientific and medical research on the specific harmfulness of drugs and scientific research on the environmental impact of drug cultivation. - Plan for the convening of a world summit on drugs, organized by the United Nations (United Nations International Drug Control Programme and the World Health Organization), which would take account of all aspects, whether old or new, of the problem of drug consumption and trafficking. Strengthen the means and authority of the UNDCP. - Bring about a 'global mobilization’ of governments, parliaments, the media, industry and society against drugs and addiction. Notes 1. The term ’drugs’ refers to narcotics and psychotropic substances as defined by the relevant intemational conventions. 2. UNDCP, 1997 World Drug Report, Oxford University Press, New York, 1997; Le Monde, 27 June 1997. 3. Eric de la Maisonneuve, La Violence qui vient, Editions Arléa, Paris, 1997. 4. Christian de Brie, ’la drogue dopée par le marché,’ Le Monde Diplomatique, April 1996. ' ‘ 5. Hugues de Jouvenel, ’L’inextricable marché des drogues illicites,’ Futuribles, No. 185, March 1994 (special issue ’Géopolitique et économie politr'que de la drogue'). 6. UNDCP, 1997 World Drug Report. 7. Address by the director-general of UNESCO at the 58th session of the United Nations International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), Vienna, 9 May 1995. 8. Quoted in UNDP, 1994 World Report on Human Development, UNDP, Econom— ica, Paris, 1994, p. 37; UN Chronicle, No. 3, 1996. 9. Alain Iabrousse, Les Idées en mouvement, No. 35, January 1996. 10. Alain labrousse, interview in Le Nouvel Observateur, 19—25 September 1996. 1 1. See The Mob on Wall Street,’ Business Week, 16 December 1996; lament Zecchini, ’La "pieuvre" mafieuse prolifére a Wall Street,’ Le Monde, 3 January 1997; Brie, ’Ia drogue dopée par 1e marché’; IaMond Tullis, Unintended Consequences: Illegal Drugs and Drug Policies in Nine Countries, Studies on the Impact of the Illegal Drug Trade, Vol. 4, series editor IaMond Tullis, United Nations University and United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, CO and London, 1995. 12. De Brie, Monde Diplomatique feature, Le Monde Diplomatique, February 1996. 13. US Department of State, Intemational Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 1996, March 1997. 14. Address by the director-general of UNESCO at the 58th session of the United Nations International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), Vienna, 9 May 1995. 15. labrousse, Les Idées en mouvement. 16. Patrick Piro, Les Ide’es en mouvement, No. 35, January 1996. 17. Report of the lntemational Narcotics Control Board, 1997, para. 20. 18. Ethan A. Nadelmann, ’Commonsense drug policy,’ Foreign Affairs, January/ February 1998, p. 112; Anthony Lewis, "The war on drugs is being lost,’ Inter- national Herald Tribune, 6January 1998. 196 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. ' 28. 29. 30. 31. ISSUE 10 / Can the Global Community "Win" the Drug War? laMond Tullis, Unintended Consequences, p. 183. See address by the director-general of UNESCO at the 58th session of the United Nations International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), Vienna, 9 May 1995. Kopp and Schiray, ’Les sciences sociales.’ Conclusions of the Cornité consultatif national d’éthique (CCNE), November 1994, quoted in Observatoire géopolitique des drogues, Ge’opolitique des Drogues 1995, Paris, 1995. Charter co—ordinated by the NGQ Environnement sans frontiere, with the sup port of UNESCO and the United Nations Programme for Intemational Narcotics Control (UNPlNC). The signatories also emphasized that ’drug trafficking and use are a threat to the development and progress of our societies, they invariably cause greater violence, crime, exploitation and other infringements of our rights’ and that the fight against drugs hinges on guaranteeing ’peace, freedom, democ— racy, solidarity, justice, protection of the environment and access to employment’. UNDP, World Report on Human Development, 1994. Ibrd. Giovanni Falcone, ’What is the mafia?’ lecture to the Bundeskriminalamt (Wiesbaden), 1990, FrankfizrterAllgemeine Zeitung, 27 May 1992, reproduced in Esprit, No. 185, October 1992, pp. 111—18. See Le Monde, 10 February 1998, ’Cadavres exquis.’ ’Cadavres exquis’ is the French title of Francesco Rosi’s film Cadaven' Eccellenti, based on Leonardo Sciasda’s novel The Context. . Liberation, 13 September 1995. US Department of State, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 1996, . March 1997. UNDP, World Report on Human Development, 1994. See for example, ‘Marijuana: special report,’ New Scientist, 21 February 1998. ...
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