Fall 2009 BIO 314 MT1 exam and answers for BB

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Unformatted text preview: Fall
2009
BIO
314
Midterm
1
version
0.
Please
write
and
“bubble
in”
your
name
and
ID#
on
the
opscan
 forms
using
a
#2
pencil.
Choose
the
best
answer
for
each
of
the
30
questions.
Only
the
opscan
form
 will
be
collected.
Good
luck!
 
 
 1) In
general,
an
abnormal
growth
is
considered
to
be
a
cancer
(malignant,
as
opposed
to
benign)
once
 it
has….
 a) spread
to
a
distant
anatomical
site.
 b) crossed
the
basal
lamina
and
invaded
the
underlying
stroma.
 c) grown
larger
than
1
mm
in
diameter.
 d) all
of
the
above.
 
 2) Why
do
researchers
believe
that
it
is
important
to
identify
and
characterize
the
genes
that
reside
 within
the
amplicons
that
are
frequently
observed
in
human
cancers?
 a) Amplicons
are
hereditary
and
contribute
to
the
inherent
cancer
risk
in
humans.
 b) Amplicons
are
induced
by
mutagens
such
as
chemical
carcinogens
and
X
rays.
 c) The
gene(s)
that
reside
within
an
amplicon
are
likely
to
have
contributed
to
tumorigenesis,
 tumor
progression,
and/or
chemoresistance.
 d) The
amplicons
identify
the
site
of
retroviral
insertion.
 e) All
of
the
above.
 
 3) Which
of
the
following
statements
regarding
carcinogen‐induced
cancers
is
false?
 a) Epidemiological
evidence
supporting
the
connection
between
exposure
to
certain
substances
 and
elevated
cancer
risk
has
been
available
for
over
200
years.
 b) In
the
early
1900’s,
scientists
began
inducing
cancers
in
lab
animals
by
deliberately
repeatedly
 exposing
them
to
presumed
carcinogens.
 c) Ames
was
the
first
to
observe
that
some
chemicals
are
potent
carcinogens,
while
others
are
 weak
carcinogens.
 d) The
Ames
test
allowed
researchers
to
quantitatively
correlate
mutagenicity
in
bacteria
with
 tumorigenicity
in
lab
animals.

 e) None
of
the
above.
 
 4) Which
of
the
following
statements
regarding
signaling
in
normal
cells
and
cancer
cells
is
false?
 a) Cancer
cells
that
have
established
several
autocrine
signaling
loops
have
a
poor
prognosis,
 because
these
cells
have
enabled
multiple
independent
mitogenic
signal
transduction
pathways.

 b) Cancers
cells
that
over‐express
RTK’s
can
respond
to
tiny
amounts
of
ligand,
and
in
some
 instances
signaling
can
be
ligand‐independent.
 c) In
normal
cells,
RTK
transphosphorylation
is
strictly
dependent
on
ligand
binding.
Ligand
binding
 promotes
a
conformational
change
in
the
RTKs
that
is
required
for
dimerization,
and
 dimerization
is
required
for
transphosphorylation.
 d) RTKs
have
a
hydrophilic
extracellular
ectodomain,
and
hydrophobic
transmembrane
domain,
 and
a
hydrophilic
cytoplasmic
domain,
which
contains
the
catalytic
portion
of
the
protein.
 e) 
The
extracellular
ectodomains
of
all
RTKs
are
highly
conserved
in
primary
sequence
and
 structure.
 
 1
 Fall
2009
BIO
314
Midterm
1
version
0.
Please
write
and
“bubble
in”
your
name
and
ID#
on
the
opscan
 forms
using
a
#2
pencil.
Choose
the
best
answer
for
each
of
the
30
questions.
Only
the
opscan
form
 will
be
collected.
Good
luck!
 
 
 5) Which
of
the
following
predictions
is
likely
to
come
true?
 a) If
Americans
adopted
the
“Mediterranean
diet”,
high
in
unsaturated
fats
and
complex
 carbohydrates
(fiber),
the
incidence
of
colon,
prostate
and
breast
cancer
would
probably
 decrease.

 b) If
Americans
decreased
their
exposure
to
tobacco
(cigarettes),
the
incidence
of
lung,
bladder,
 and
kidney
cancers
would
probably
decrease.
 c) Both
“a”
and
“b”.
 d) Neither
“a”
nor
“b”.
 
 6) Which
of
the
following
statements
is
true?
 a) In
the
JAK‐STAT
pathway,
ligand
binding
allows
transcription
factors
that
promote
expression
of
 pro‐proliferative
and
anti‐apoptotic
genes
to
translocate
to
the
nucleus.
 b) In
TGF‐B
signaling,
ligand
binding
promotes
the
phosphorylation
of
cytosolic
transcription
 factors
by
the
TGF‐B
receptor‐associated
serine‐threoinine
kinase
activity.
 c) In
Notch
signaling,
ligand
binding
promotes
a
proteolytic
cleavage,
which
activates
the
Notch‐ associated
tyrosine
kinase
activity.
 d) B
&
C
only
 e) A
&
B
only
 
 7) Transformed
cells
differ
from
non‐transformed
cells
in
that
transformed
cells
are…
 a) immortal
and
rounded.
 b) mitogen‐independent
and
adherent.
 c) contact‐inhibited
and
anchorage‐independent.
 d) glucose‐resistant
and
mitogen‐dependent.
 e) None
of
the
above.
 
 8) The
src
gene…

 a) is
apparently
found
in
all
metazoans
(multicellular
eukaryotes).
 b) became
part
of
the
RSV
genome
when
it
was
kidnapped
from
chicken
genomic
DNA.
 c) is
only
oncogenic
when
its
expression
is
deregulated.
 d) All
of
the
above.
 
 9) Which
of
the
following
statements
is
correct?
 a) The
highest
mitotic
index
will
be
observed
in
hyperplastic
specimens.
 b) Metaplasia
describes
an
epithelium
that
is
composed
of
2
different
types
of
epithelial
cells.
 c) The
term
“malignant”
describes
cells
that
have
traveled
to
another
anatomical
site.
 d) Dysplastic
cells
look
quite
different
from
the
normal
epithelial
cells
of
that
tissue
or
organ.
 e) None
of
the
above.
 
 2
 Fall
2009
BIO
314
Midterm
1
version
0.
Please
write
and
“bubble
in”
your
name
and
ID#
on
the
opscan
 forms
using
a
#2
pencil.
Choose
the
best
answer
for
each
of
the
30
questions.
Only
the
opscan
form
 will
be
collected.
Good
luck!
 
 
 10) 
Which
of
the
following
would
be
an
example
of
insertional
mutagenesis?
 a) The
insertion
of
a
valine
instead
of
a
glycine
at
codon
12
of
the
gene
encoding
the
ras
protein
 b) The
mutations
within
the
histidine
operon
of
the
Salmonella
bacteria
genome
(Ames
test)
 caused
by
carcinogens
 c) The
injection
of
Rous
sarcoma
virus
particles
into
a
healthy
chicken,
which
induces
tumor
 formation.
 d) The
integration
of
an
infectious
virus
next
to
a
cellular
proto‐oncogene.
 e) None
of
the
above.
 
 11) Proto‐oncogenes
can
become
oncogenic
following
changes
in
protein
structure
(ie
ras)
or
 expression
(ie
myc).
Why?
 a) Because
ras
is
a
kinase,
and
myc
is
not.
 b) Because
only
mutant
ras
can
transduce
signals.
 c) Because
deregulated
levels
of
myc
are
necessary
for
mitogen‐induced
proliferation.
 d) All
of
the
above.
 e) None
of
the
above.
 
 12) Which
statement
regarding
tumor
viruses
and
oncogenes
is
true?
 a) Oncogenes
encode
enzymes
required
for
DNA
replication
such
as
DNA
polymerase.
 b) A
tumor
virus
can
only
transform
cells
if
it
is
stably
integrated
into
the
host
genome.

 c) Tumor
viruses
are
unique
to
avians
(birds);
they
have
never
been
observed
in
rodents
or
 primates.
 d) Tumor
viruses
can
only
transform
epithelial
cells.
 e) None
of
the
above.
 
 13) Which
of
the
following
statements
regarding
epithelial
cells
is
incorrect?
 a) The
majority
of
human
cancers
are
derived
from
epithelial
cells
and
are
called
carcinomas.
 b) Epithelial
cells
can
serve
a
number
of
functions
including
protection,
absorption,
and
secretion.
 c) Epithelial
cells
often
have
a
polarity;
the
side
that
is
in
contact
with
the
underlying
basal
lamina
 may
be
functionally
and
structurally
different
from
the
side
in
contact
with
the
lumen.
 d) Normal
epithelial
cells
are
anchorage‐dependent
and
contact‐inhibited.
 e) None
of
the
above.

 
 14) Which
of
the
following
experiments
did
not
contribute
to
the
identification
of
ras
as
an
oncogene?
 a) The
demonstration
that
cultured
cell
lines
derived
from
human
tumors
could
form
tumors
in
 nude
mice.

 b) The
homology
between
the
tumor
virus‐associated
oncogene
and
the
transfected
oncogene
 c) The
characterization
of
wild‐type
proto‐oncogenic
Ras
in
normal
human
cells
and
mutant
 oncogenic
Ras
in
human
tumor‐derived
cells.
 d) Transfection
of
normal
mouse
fibroblasts
with
DNA
extracted
from
chemically
transformed
 fibroblasts
 
 
 
 3
 Fall
2009
BIO
314
Midterm
1
version
0.
Please
write
and
“bubble
in”
your
name
and
ID#
on
the
opscan
 forms
using
a
#2
pencil.
Choose
the
best
answer
for
each
of
the
30
questions.
Only
the
opscan
form
 will
be
collected.
Good
luck!
 
 15) The
work
of
Peyton
Rous
and
other
tumor
virologists
was
significant
because…
 a) we
now
know
how
to
cure
cancer
in
chickens.
 b) we
now
know
how
to
create
immuno‐compromised
mice.
 c) we
now
know
that
viruses
can
transform
cells,
and
that
this
transformed
phenotype
is
passed
 from
the
infected
cell
to
its
descendants.
 d) we
can
now
study
transformation
at
the
cellular
and
molecular
level
in
the



laboratory.
 e) Both
“c”
&
“d”
are
true.
 
 16) Which
of
the
following
is
incorrect?
 a) FISH
(fluorescent
in
situ
hybridization)
can
be
used
to
detect
chromosomal
abnormalities
such
as
 translocations
and
amplifications
 b) IHC
(immunohistochemistry)
can
be
used
to
detect
changes
in
protein
abundance

 c) Focus
formation
assays
can
be
used
to
identify
oncogenes
 d) Infection
with
retroviruses
can
be
used
to
generate
nude
mice
 e) cDNA
microarrays
can
be
used
to
detect
tumor‐associated
changes
in
gene
expression
 
 17) Which
statement
regarding
retroviruses
is
incorrect?
 a) Some
retroviruses
cause
tumors
immediately,
others
cause
tumors
after
a
prolonged
infection.
 b) Retroviruses
preferentially
insert
into
the
host
genome
near
a
cellular
proto‐oncogene.
 c) Retroviral
promoters
are
very
strong;
they
almost
always
upregulate
the
expression
of
the
host
 gene
downstream
of
the
insertion
site.

 d) They
do
not
play
a
significant
role
in
human
cancer.
 e) None
of
the
above.
 
 18) Regarding
the
investigation
of
the
monoclonal
nature
of
tumors,
which
of
the
following
statements
 is
true?
 a) These
investigations
are
important
because
they
allow
us
to
determine
which
X
chromosome
 has
been
inactivated
in
tumor
tissue.
 b) These
investigations
are
important
because
they
allow
us
to
prove
that
tumors
always
arise
 from
spontaneous
point
mutations
in
somatic
cells.
 c) These
investigations
are
important
because
they
allow
us
to
identify
genetic
events
that
can
 contribute
to
tumorigenesis
by
providing
a
strong
proliferative
advantage
to
cells.

 d) All
of
the
above.
 e) None
of
the
above.
 
 19) Which
of
the
following
statements
regarding
reciprocal
chromosomal
translocations
is
correct?
 a) They
only
occur
in
white
blood
cells.
 b) They
only
occur
during
antibody
production.
 c) They
can
result
in
de‐regulated
expression
of
a
proto‐oncogene.
 d) They
are
more
frequent
in
equatorial
Africa.
 e) All
of
the
above.
 
 4
 Fall
2009
BIO
314
Midterm
1
version
0.
Please
write
and
“bubble
in”
your
name
and
ID#
on
the
opscan
 forms
using
a
#2
pencil.
Choose
the
best
answer
for
each
of
the
30
questions.
Only
the
opscan
form
 will
be
collected.
Good
luck!
 
 
 20) Which
of
the
following
statements
regarding
the
activation
of
cellular
proto‐oncogenes
in
humans
is
 correct?
 a)
These
events
can
occur
spontaneously
in
somatic
cells.
 b)
Examples
of
regulatory
alterations
of
cellular
proto‐oncogenes
include
the
amplification
and
 over‐expression
of
epidermal
growth
factor
receptor,
also
known
as
HER2/Neu/erbB2.

 c)
Examples
of
structural
alterations
of
cellular
proto‐oncogenes
that
result
in
activation
include
the
 point
mutation
in
ras
and
the
translocation
that
produces
the
oncogene
associated
with
CML
(bcr‐ abl).
 d)
All
of
the
above.
 e)
None
of
the
above.
 
 21) In
some
tumors,
such
as
pediatric
neuroblastomas,
excessive
amplification
of
the
myc
gene
is
 strongly
correlated
with
poor
prognosis.
The
simplest
explanation
for
this
is….
 a) Neuroblastomas
with
multiple
copies
of
the
myc
gene
are
more
likely
to
undergo
chromosomal
 translocation
 b) Neuroblastomas
with
multiple
copies
of
the
myc
gene
are
more
likely
to
activate
other
proto‐ oncogenes,
such
as
ras
 c) Neuroblastomas
with
multiple
copies
of
the
myc
gene
probably
express
enough
myc
protein
to
 proliferate
even
in
the
absence
of
mitogens
 d) Neuroblastomas
with
multiple
copies
of
the
myc
gene
are
more
sensitive
to
chemical
 carcinogens
 e) Neuroblastomas
with
multiple
copies
of
the
myc
gene
are
more
likely
to
be
infected
by
 retroviruses
 







22)
Which
of
the
following
statements
regarding
src
(sarc)
is
false?
 a)
Src
was
the
first
oncogene
to
be
identified.
It
was
present
in
a
tumor
viruses
and
absent
from
 infectious
viruses.




 b)
Scientists
were
very
surprised
to
find
that
that
normal
cellular
DNA
from



various
organisms
 (fish,
birds,
humans,
etc)
also
contained
src
sequences
 c)
Scientists
were
also
surprised
to
see
that
src
had
an
unusual
enzymatic
activity
of
phosphorylating
 tyrosines,
instead
of
threonines
and
serines.

 d)
The
sarc
gene
is
frequently
amplified
and/or
overexpressed
in
human
cancers.
 
 23) Which
of
the
following
statements
regarding
cell
signaling
is
false?
 a) If
a
cell
does
not
receive
sufficient
mitogenic
signaling,
it
will
probably
die.
 b) Autocrine,
paracrine,
and
endocrine
signaling
pathways
differ
in
the
way
a
signaling
molecule
 arrives
at
its
target
cell.
 c) The
cellular
response
to
signal
transduction
isn’t
always
cell
proliferation;
some
signals
trigger
 other
responses
including
cell
death,
cell
differentiation,
or
cell
migration.
 d) Cell
communication
is
essential
for
the
structural
and
functional
integrity
of
tissues
and
organs.
 e) PDGF,
a
growth
factor
secreted
by
platelets,
promotes
the
migration
and
proliferation
of
 fibroblasts.
 
 
 5
 Fall
2009
BIO
314
Midterm
1
version
0.
Please
write
and
“bubble
in”
your
name
and
ID#
on
the
opscan
 forms
using
a
#2
pencil.
Choose
the
best
answer
for
each
of
the
30
questions.
Only
the
opscan
form
 will
be
collected.
Good
luck!
 
 
 24) Which
of
the
following
statements
regarding
Herceptin
is
false?
 a)
It
specifically
targets
a
growth
factor
receptor
that
is
known
to
be
deregulated
in
some
breast
and
 ovarian
adenocarcinomas
 b)
Herceptin
binds
to
the
catalytic
tyrosine
kinase
domain
of
the
receptor
HER2
(EGFR).

 c)
Herceptin
triggers
receptor
degradation
and
destruction
of
targeted
cells.
 d)
In
clinical
trials,
patients
that
received
Herceptin
in
combination
with
standard
chemotherapy
 had
fewer
deaths,
relapses,
and
metastases
than
those
that
received
chemo
alone.
 e)
None
of
the
above
is
false.
 
 25) Which
of
the
following
statements
describes
the
association
between
viruses
and
cancers?
 a) Rapidly
(acutely)
transforming
tumor
viruses
are
tumorigenic
because
they
have
activated
a
 cellular
proto‐oncogene
by
altering
its
structure
and/or
expression.

 b) Infection
with
some
viruses,
such
as
HPV,
contributes
to
certain
cancers
by
inactivating
tumor
 suppressor
pathways.
 c) Infection
with
some
viruses,
such
as
EBV,
is
associated
with
certain
cancers,
but
their
role
is
not
 clearly
defined.
 d) Some
viruses,
such
as
CMV,
are
frequently
found
in
human
tumor
cells,
where
they
seem
to
 enhance
the
proliferative
and
malignant
properties
of
these
cells,
a
phenomenon
known
as
 “oncomodulation”.
 e) All
of
the
above
are
correct.
 
 26) Oncogenes
are
oncogenes,
regardless
of
whether
they
have
become
activated
by
tumor
viruses
or
 by
somatic
alterations
such
as
gene
amplification,
translocation,
mutation,
or
deregulated
 expression.
Examples
include
 a) G
proteins
such
as
ras
 b) Transcription
factors
such
as
myc
 c) Growth
factor
receptors
such
as
Kit
 d) Ligands
such
as
PDGF
 e) All
of
the
above
 
 
 27) The
catalytic
portion
of
a
epidermal
growth
factor
receptor
 a) is
required
for
ligand
binding.

 b) is
required
for
transferring
phosphate
groups
from
ATP
to
tyrosines.
 c) is
required
for
receptor
translocation.
 d) is
required
for
receptor
dimerization.

 e) All
of
the
above.
 
 6
 Fall
2009
BIO
314
Midterm
1
version
0.
Please
write
and
“bubble
in”
your
name
and
ID#
on
the
opscan
 forms
using
a
#2
pencil.
Choose
the
best
answer
for
each
of
the
30
questions.
Only
the
opscan
form
 will
be
collected.
Good
luck!
 
 
 28) If
you
were
to
experimentally
block
the
interaction
between
integrins
and
their
ligands,
what
would
 happen?
 a) Normal
cells
will
up‐regulate
myc
expressionand
start
proliferating.
 b) Normal
cells
will
stop
proliferating
because
they
have
lost
contact
with
the
extracellular
matrix.
 c) In
normal
cells,
the
integrins
will
remain
in
their
un‐phosphorylated
state.
 d) In
normal
cells,
signaling
through
G
proteins
will
be
inhibited.

 e) None
of
the
above
 
 29) Which
of
the
following
statements
regarding
Ras
is
incorrect?
 a) Ras
is
a
GPCR
(G
protein
coupled
receptor)

 b) Mitogenic
signaling
results
in
phosphorylation
of
Ras
 c) The
difference
between
wild‐type,
proto‐oncogenic
Ras
and
mutant,
oncogenic
Ras
is
that
 mutant
Ras
is
constitutively
phosphorylated
and
activated
 d) Activated
Ras
uses
GTP
to
phosphorylate
target
proteins
in
a
kinase
cascade.
 e) All
of
the
above

 
 30)
The
proto‐oncogene:oncogene
connection
was
reinforced
by
which
of
the
following
 observations?
 a) the
onco‐protein
erbB,
from
avian
erythroblastosis
virus,
resembles
epidermal
growth
factor
 receptor
EGF‐R
 b) the
onco‐protein
sis,
from
simian
sarcoma
virus,
resembles
platelet‐derived
growth
factor
PDGF.
 c) Both
a
&
b
 d) Neither
a
nor
b.
 
 
 
 
 
 F09
BIO
314
MT1
answer
keys
 Version
0
 BCCEC
EADDD
EBEAE
DBCCD
CDABE
EBBEC
 
 
 
 
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This note was uploaded on 01/04/2011 for the course BIO 314 taught by Professor Erster,s during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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