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AUTOMATION PROJECT DEFINITION; According to the Compton’s pictured encyclopedia, automation does not the same meaning for all people who used it. To a number of the petroleum industry, it means ‘complete automatic control of a continuous processing operation.’ In the automobile industry, automation describes the automatic machining and transfer of automobile parts from one metal working machine to another. General automation may be referred to as the performance of work by equipment that is automatically controlled. Automation is used for a wide variety of jobs that are too complex and dangerous for people to do. Industrial robots on assembly lines perform a repetitive work that seems to be boring to many people and for work that would be extremely costly if done by people HISTORY OF AUTOMATION The earliest known example of automation is a water clock the existed in Alexandria, Egypt, about the 200’s BC. In this clock, a large elevated container filled with water had an opening near the bottom. Water flooded through the opening into a jar marked to show units of time. The level of the water in the jar indicated the time of the day. As the water level in the large container dropped, the water pressure decreased. Normally, the lower pressure would slow the flow of water into the jar. However the large container in the clock had a float was linked to a device that controlled the size of the opening. As the water level in the container dropped, the opening became wider, thereby providing a more constant flow of water into the jar and making the clock more accurate. A float was also used in toilets invented by the romans. Such floats are still used today in toilets. In 1787, James Watt, a Scottish engineer, constructed a device called the fly ball governor to regulate the speed of steam engine. The use of the fly ball governor marked the first industrial application of automation. Through the 1900’s automated controls have been applied to many processes. Automated steering systems controlled by gyroscopes ere first used in ships in the 1920’s and came into regular use in aero planes in the 1930’s . During this, time, the quality of telephone signals was improved by using amplifiers controlled by feedback. The use of automated controls in chemical production and petroleum beginning also started from the early 1900’s. World War II (1939-1945) further stimulated the development of automation. Automatic ally aimed antiaircraft guns were introduced in 1944 due to the improvement in radar and electronics In 1961, the first industrial robot was used. It was controlled by a computer and worked in an automobile assemble plant. By the late 1980’s the United States had about 33000 industrial robots. Many of them were used in the electronics industry and in the production of automobiles, airplanes and heavy construction machinery. About 35000 industrial robots operate in Western Europe and over
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100000 in Japan which are used in Japan electronics and automobiles industries.
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