exam_2_final_study_guide!!

exam_2_final_study_guide!! - Fall 2008 Feldman - 1 INDV...

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Fall 2008 Feldman - 1 INDV 101: Chapter 1 - Psychological Science I. Psychology as a science A. Characteristics of science o It’s not defined by any tool or subject matter o Asks questions and find answers o Thinking about the world and certain characteristics o Can be applied to any field o Same methodology is utilized o This is what chemistry, biology, medical, physiology…etc all have in common 1. Systematic empiricism- Find o ut through observations looking at situations, manipulating 1 at a time. Casual observation- Casually asks questions… and gets responses, no system to questions 2. Public knowledge- Need to publish enough details so not only you can do perform the test, but others too . (Replication) Unbiased objective People can therefore look over experiment and make sure nothing is missing 3. Testable problems (falsifiable) Has to have a right or wrong answer Freud- not “falsifiable” (no one could prove him wrong because he would argue it’s something else)
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Fall 2008 Feldman - 2 One outcome that supports and one that doesn’t 4. Set of attitudes Questionable / Skepticism/ Curiosity Curious about what’s happening Interested in results 5. Critical thinking- “I'll believe it when I see it”, “where is the evidence to support this?” II. Steps in the scientific method: The research process A. Question/problems - start with a question or problem and create a research question. Figure out variables B. Theory – Presents two or more variables and specifies the relationship between these variables. E xplanation, based on observations, ideas, how variables will relate to each other. Presents 2 or more variables and specifies the relationship between variables Role- can create a hypothesis to test in order to prove the theory. GOOD THEORY: Testable Consistent with research and organize research Consistent with new research done to test that theory Parsimony - the simpler the theory, the better the goal is to simplify. C. Hypothesis – a prediction about the relationship between 2 or more variables. What you think the outcome will be Prediction about relationship between 2 or more variables One outcome needs to support/ one needs to reject. (Have to have two outcomes!!!)
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Fall 2008 Feldman - 3 Needs to make sense following the theory D. Research study- perform a study/ task with and without variables/ manipulations/ measurements o Basic - to only gain knowledge/ no purpose (ex. Can infants see in color) o Applied - doing research to solve a problem/ apply research to solve (ex. Best way to prevent HIV) o Experimental - establish cause and effects… what caused something (manipulate things) o Non Experimental - relationship between variables takes already known data, don’t manipulate anything, look @ measured variables and connect them. E. Examine results-
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This note was uploaded on 01/05/2011 for the course INDV 101 taught by Professor Walker during the Fall '07 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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exam_2_final_study_guide!! - Fall 2008 Feldman - 1 INDV...

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