Chpt 1

# Chpt 1 - PSY230 Chapter 1 Notes Chapter 1 Learning Outcomes...

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PSY230 Chapter 1 Notes 1/25/2010 1 Chapter 1: Introduction to Statistics PowerPoint Lecture Slides Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences Seventh Edition by Frederick J Gravetter and Larry B. Wallnau 1/21/2010 Chapter 1 Learning Outcomes •Know key statistical terms 1 •Know key measurement terms 2 •Know key research terms 3 •Know the place of statistics in science 4 •Understand summation notation 5 1/21/2010 Statistics, Science and Observations Statistics : short for statistical procedures • Uses of Statistics – Used to organize and summarize information – Used to determine exactly what conclusions are justified based on the results that were obtained • Goals of statistical procedures – Accurate and meaningful interpretation – Provide standardized procedures 1/21/2010 Interesting Website Stats: George Mason University 1/21/2010 Populations and Samples Population – The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study – Vary in size; often quite large Sample – A set of individuals selected from a population – Usually intended to represent the population in a research study 1/21/2010 Comparison Population Sample Usually big, often unlimited Smaller, must be limited Defined by the researcher Selected by the researcher Values called parameters Values called statistics Symbolized by Greek letters Symbolized by Arabic (regular) letters 1/21/2010

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PSY230 Chapter 1 Notes 1/25/2010 2 Figure 1.1 The relationship between a population and a sample. 1/21/2010 Variables and Data Variable – Characteristic or condition that changes or has different values for different individuals Data (plural) – Measurements or observations of a variable Data set – A collection of measurements or observations. •A datum (singular) – A single measurement or observation – Commonly called a score or raw score 1/21/2010 Descriptive & Inferential Statistics Descriptive statistics – Summarize data – Organize data Inferential statistics – Study samples to make generalizations about the population – Simplify data • Familiar examples – Tables – Graphs – Averages – Interpret experimental data • Common terminology – “Margin of error” – “Statistically significant” 1/21/2010 Sampling Error • Sample is never identical to population • Sampling Error – The discrepancy, or amount of error, that exists between a sample statistic and the exists between a sample statistic and the corresponding population parameter • Example: Margin of Error in Polls – “This poll was taken from a sample of registered voters and has a margin of error of plus-or-minus 4 percentage points” (Box 1.1) 1/21/2010 Figure 1.2 A demonstration of sampling error 1/21/2010 Figure 1.3 Role of statistics in experimental research.
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## This note was uploaded on 01/05/2011 for the course PSYC 230 taught by Professor Delaney during the Spring '08 term at Arizona.

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Chpt 1 - PSY230 Chapter 1 Notes Chapter 1 Learning Outcomes...

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