Geology _ Geophysics in Oil Exploration

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Unformatted text preview: Delta, India) Ganges Delta Mississippi Delta Lagoon Nile Delta 16 Geology & Geophysics in Oil Exploration Mahmoud Sroor Geology & Geophysics in Oil Exploration 3‐Marine deposits Life of the Sea zones: Littoral or Tidal Zone: Difficult living conditions because of the strong wave action so organisms must be attached or buried Neritic Zone: It is the most life area in marine, Sea in this area is lighted & abundance of food Bathyal Zone: No light or very little, so plant life is rare but it has animal population which called Bottom Living Seavengers Abyssal Zone: No light, near freezing temp. & pressure reach to 1 Ton/inch2 (specialized creatures can live at this depth) Marine Sediments: • Marine Shoreline Environments: Much siliclastic sediments can be deposited in marine shoreline. Beaches & Barriers developed in areas of high wave action. Beaches are linear belts of sand along beach where Barriers are separated from land by lagoon • Shallow Marine (Neritic Zone): Coarser materials are deposited near shore & grade into finer deposits upward. Shallow marine sediments is made of sediments derived from land by ways of Stream, Glaciers or Aeolian. Sediments may consist of remains of organisms & chemical precipitates. Structural features: usually lenticular beds. Ripple, currents marks have great variation in trend & extension. Sea floor has steep slopes, so sediments may slump & develop crimpled & irregular bedding planes • Intermediate Seas (Bathyal deposits) At the continental slope, & covered by fine sediments of land origin which called Blue Muds. The presence of Blue Muds color is due to presence of organic matter & also to De‐Oxided conditions of Iron. Blue Muds may cover over 20 million Km2 of the ocean basin • Deep Marine (Abyssal Deposits) Many sediments are Volcanic, pelagic & meteoric origin. Very poorly sorted, Set in motion by storms and quakes, Calcareous and siliceous oozes. In greatest depth of ocean, the bottom is covered by Fine Red Clay which composed of Calcareous to siliceous to terrestrial clay, Shells & other organic matters 17 Geology & Geophysics in Oil Exploration Mahmoud Sroor Geology & Geophysics in Oil Exploration Ch3: Structural Geology Structural geology is the study of the thre...
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